RNAs and RNA-binding proteins in immuno-metabolic homeostasis and diseases
- 1Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, United States
- 2College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, United States
- 3Tohoku University, Japan
The increasing prevalence of worldwide obesity has emerged as a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), hepatosteatosis, and cardiovascular disease. Accumulating evidence indicates that obesity has strong inflammatory underpinnings tightly linked to the development of metabolic diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms by which obesity induces aberrant inflammation associated with metabolic diseases are not yet clearly defined. Recently, RNAs have emerged as important regulators of stress responses and metabolism. RNAs are subject to changes in modification status, higher-order structure, and cellular localization, all of which could affect the affinity for RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and thereby modify the RNA-RBP networks. Proper regulation and management of RNA characteristics are fundamental to cellular and organismal homeostasis, as well as paramount to health. Identification of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within loci of fat mass- and obesity-associated protein (FTO) gene, an RNA demethylase, through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of T2D, and functional assessments of FTO in mice, support the concept that disruption in RNA modifications leads to the development of human diseases including obesity and metabolic disorder. In obesity, dynamic alterations in modification and localization of RNAs appear to modulate the RNA-RBP networks and activate proinflammatory RBPs, such as double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase (PKR), Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 and TLR7, and RNA silencing machinery. These changes induce aberrant inflammation and the development of metabolic diseases. This review will describe our current understanding of the underlying causes of these common and altered characteristics of RNA-RBP networks which will pave the way for developing novel approaches to tackle the pandemic issue of obesity.
Keywords: RNA, RNA binding protein (RBP), Obesity, RNA methylation, PKR, TLR7, TLR3, snoRNA, FTO, Cnot complex, RNA silencing, Ago2, TRBP
Received: 04 Jun 2019;
Accepted: 17 Jul 2019.
Edited by:Ippei Shimizu, Niigata University, Japan
Reviewed by:Jaetaek Kim, Chung-Ang University, South Korea
Seitaro Nomura, The University of Tokyo, Japan
Copyright: © 2019 Salem, Vonberg, Borra, Gill and Nakamura. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Prof. Takahisa Nakamura, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, United States, email@example.com