Biomarkers for Dementia, Fatigue, and Depression in Parkinson's Disease
- 1Department of Neurology, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany
- 2Center for Healthy Ageing, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany
Parkinson's disease is a common multisystem neurodegenerative disorder characterized by typical motor and non-motor symptoms. There is an urgent need for biomarkers for assessment of disease severity, complications and prognosis. In addition, biomarkers reporting the underlying pathophysiology assist in understanding the disease and developing neuroprotective therapies. Ultimately, biomarkers could be used to develop a more efficient personalized approach for clinical trials and treatment strategies. With the goal to improve quality of life in Parkinson's disease it is essential to understand and objectively monitor non-motor symptoms. This narrative review provides an overview of recent developments of biomarkers (biofluid samples and imaging) for three common neuropsychological syndromes in Parkinson's disease: dementia, fatigue, and depression.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is now considered as progressive and multisystem α-synucleinopathy. Therefore, PD is characterized not only by motor symptoms, but also a broad range of non-motor symptoms (NMS) (1). NMS can aggravate disease burden and significantly contribute to worsening of quality of life (2). Biomarkers which are associated with worse motor performance as well as development of NMS are of special importance in PD. A biomarker is “a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention” (3). The ideal PD biomarkers should have a reasonable effect size, are reproducible across different cohorts and are ideally verified in neuropathological proven PD cases. Biomarkers in PD can include (i) biomarker for prodromal stage to identify PD before motor symptoms occur, (ii) biomarkers of susceptibility to identify persons who are at risk for PD, (iii) biomarkers for motor and non-motor burden to assess disease severity and monitor the efficacy of therapies. The last one can help to identify patients who are at risk to develop complications and may lead to individual optimization and prevention in health care. This review provides an update on recent advances in the development of biomarkers (biofluid samples and neuroimaging) for three common neuropsychological syndromes: dementia, fatigue and depression.
Cognitive deficits are common in PD and can present as mild dysfunction in the prodromal and early stages, or as dementia (PDD) in advanced stages (4). Approximately 20% of patients with de novo PD have mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (5). The concept of PD-MCI was introduced 2012 (MDS Task Force) and characterizes a cognitive decline that is assessed during neuropsychological testing but does not impair activities of daily living (6). MCI is considered an intermediate state of cognitive dysfunction in PD that may progress to PDD. Up to 75% of patients will develop dementia over the longterm disease course (7). However, the rate to PDD, the cognitive profile and severity of cognitive dysfunction show high interindividual variation. Given its high medical and social impact and its health-related costs, the identification of biomarkers for PDD is of high priority (8). Biomarkers reflecting cognitive decline can facilitate early diagnosis and may indicate response to therapeutic interventions.
Clinical factors, such as higher age, male sex, low level of education, longer disease duration, higher Hoehn & Yahr stage, axial impairment, excessive daytime sleepiness, cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction, REM sleep behavior disorder, hallucinations and PD-MCI were found to strongly predict the development of PDD (9–13). Moreover, impairment of memory and language (posterior-cortical dysfunction) seems to be linked to a higher risk of PDD (14, 15).
Given the neuropathology of PDD several studies aimed to identify biomarkers which reflect proteinopathy, neuronal loss, abnormal neurotransmitters, and structural and functional brain changes. Lewy bodies and amyloid plaques in the neocortex and limbic system are typical neuropathological features of Alzheimer's disease and PDD (16, 17). Hence, the majority of studies investigated amyloid-ß 1–42 (Aß), tau protein, and α-synuclein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of PD patients (Table 1). In many studies the level of Aß was reduced in PDD. Low CSF levels of Aß were found to be related to deterioration in attention, executive function, semantic fluency and memory (21, 38, 40, 45). One-half of PDD patients had the CSF biomarker signature of Alzheimer's disease (46) suggestive of an overlap with Alzheimer's disease pathology (47). Low baseline CSF Aβ was associated with more rapid cognitive decline later in disease. By contrast, the levels of total (t-tau) and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) were found to be increased or unchanged in PDD (Table 1). For clinicians it is highly relevant to know which biomarkers accurately predict the progression from MCI to PDD. Therefore, based on the data from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies one can assume that reduced Aß predicts cognitive decline in PD (40, 42, 48).
Table 1. Cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF) biomarkers of cognitive impairment and dementia in Parkinson's disease.
Several studies assessed the CSF levels of α-synuclein in PD. Meta-analyses demonstrated that total α-synuclein levels are lower in PD compared to controls (49, 50). However, in terms of α-synuclein and cognitive decline there are conflicting results with both low and high levels in the presence of cognitive impairment (29, 41, 48). In the DATATOP study with up to 8 years of follow-up, lower α-synuclein levels predicted better preservation of cognitive function (verbal learning and memory, visuospatial working memory) in early disease. Thus, α-synuclein may reflect changes in multiple cognitive domains and may predict cognitive decline in PD (29, 41, 48). On the other hand most studies of non-demented PD failed to find any association between α-synuclein levels and cognition (51, 52). It seems that CSF α-synuclein levels may increase with disease stage. This could explain why cognitive deficits in connection with high levels of α- synuclein were found in more advanced disease stages (53). Isoforms of α-synuclein (e.g., phosphorylated, ubiquitinated, oligomeric) are potentially more sensitive to cognitive decline than the total α-synuclein level (24, 30). Another study examining plasma levels of α-synuclein found higher levels in PDD and a correlation with mini mental state examination scores (54). This finding, however, requires further investigations.
In another longitudinal study, high neurofilament light chain protein, low Aβ and high heart fatty acid–binding protein at baseline were related to future PDD with a relatively high diagnostic accuracy (19). Also several serum proteins, such as C-reactive protein, interleukins, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor α, uric acid, and cystatin C were found to be associated with cognition in PD (55). In particular, low uric acid concentrations, low levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor (ILGF) seems to have predictive value for deterioration of cognitive function in PD (56–61). In combination with clinical markers, a study of 390 patients from the Progression Markers Initiative study with newly diagnosed PD, the occurrence of cognitive impairment at 2 years follow-up could be predicted with good accuracy using a model combining information on age, non-motor assessments, DAT imaging, and CSF biomarkers. Here, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores and low CSF Aβ to t-tau ratio and DAT imaging results were the best predictors of cognitive impairment (39). Using data from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative, Fereshtehnejad et al., identified distinct subgroups via a cluster analysis of a comprehensive dataset consisting of clinical characteristics, neuroimaging, biospecimen and genetic information. Here, the CSF biomarkers differed between these PD subtypes. Patients with diffuse malignant disease course and fast cognitive decline, showed an Alzheimer's disease-like CSF profile (low Aβ, low Aβ/t-tau ratio) (62).
Applying computerized neuroimaging analyses several MRI studies have found gray matter atrophy and disruptions of white matter integrity in PDD, although findings in non-demented PD and PD-MCI remain inconsistent (63) (Tables 2, 3). A longitudinal study using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) found neocortical volume reduction (temporo-occipital region, hippocampal and parahippocampal) as the most relevant finding in patients who develop PDD (97). Another study has identified a validated Alzheimer's disease pattern of brain atrophy as an independent predictor of cognitive impairment in PD (64). More specifically cortical thinning in the right precentral, frontal, and in the anterior cingulate cortex as well as gray matter atrophy (prefrontal, insula, caudate nucleus, hippocampal) predicted cognitive decline in PD (23, 66, 70, 76, 98). Cognitive impairment was also found to be associated with lower gray matter volume and increased mean diffusivity in the nucleus basalis of Meynert, compared to non-demented patients. Moreover, these changes were predictive for developing cognitive impairment in cognitively intact patients with PD, independent of other clinical and non-clinical markers of the disease (99). The nucleus basalis of Meynert and the pedunculopontine nucleus in the brainstem are important cholinergic projections in and post-mortem studies have shown that neuronal loss in in the nucleus basalis is an early phenomenon in PD (100, 101). Combining many modalities, Compta et al. (23) performed a longitudinal study in non-demented PD patients including CSF, neuropsychological and MRI studies at baseline and 18 months follow up. Here, a combination of lower CSF Aβ, reduced verbal learning, semantic fluency and visuoperceptual scores, as well as cortical thinning in superior-frontal/anterior cingulate and precentral regions were found to be predictive for PDD.
Table 2. Cortical and subcortical structural changes related to cognitive impairment and dementia in Parkinson's disease.
Table 3. Changes of function and connectivity related to cognitive impairment and dementia in Parkinson's disease.
For the assessment of white matter pathology using DTI and imaging of metabolites (Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy) there is currently not enough longitudinal data available and the value of these techniques to predict cognitive decline has to be further explored. The existing studies indicate that microstructural changes, such as increased mean diffusivity or reduced fractional anisotropy in the hippocampus, the frontal and parietal white matter tracts are associated with cognitive decline in PD (68, 80, 81, 102–104). In particular, an increased mean diffusivity may be predictive for cognitive decline before fractional anisotropy decreases. However, these findings need further validation in longitudinal studies.
Fatigue is a common symptom that includes both mental and physical aspects. Up to 70% of individuals with PD experience fatigue every day (105). Fatigue dramatically impairs quality of life (106). It is a complex syndrome emerging from dysfunction in the nervous, endocrine and immune system (107). From a clinical point of view fatigue is frequently associated with other non-motor syndromes, like sleepiness, apathy, depression and autonomic dysfunction (105, 108). However, fatigue can also occur as an isolated syndrome; it is therefore important to understand that fatigue and sleepiness or depression is not the same condition (109, 110). Central fatigue is commonly measured through questionnaires, such as the Fatigue Severity Scale (111) which is recommended by the Movement Disorder Society (MDS) task force (112). Central fatigue can be described as a feeling of constant exhaustion and can occur in various chronic disorders. Peripheral fatigue is characterized by failure to sustain the force of muscle contraction and is more readily accessible to quantification (106, 113).
A key mechanism underlying fatigue is the activation of the inflammatory cytokine network (107, 114). Therefore, inflammatory markers serve as potential biomarkers of fatigue. In particular, higher serum levels of IL-6, IL1-Ra, sIL-2R, and VCAM-1 were associated with higher fatigue levels in patients with newly diagnosed, drug-naïve PD (115, 116). This neuroinflammatory processes may promote glutamate dysregulation and further influence neuronal activity and neuroplasticity, and impact neuronal circuits mediating distress and motivation in PD (117–119). Interestingly, higher serum uric acid levels were significantly associated with less fatigue (120).
In addition, dysfunction of the endocrine system, such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system which is connected to basal ganglia, amygdala, thalamus and frontal cortex, seems to contribute to the pathophysiology of fatigue (113). Although there are no neuropathological studies of PD-fatigue supporting this model so far, several neuroimaging studies showed that multiple brain areas are involved in fatigue in PD. These include frontal, temporal and parietal regions indicative of emotion, motivation and cognitive functions (121–126). In SPECT imaging with technetium-99 hexamethyl-propylene-amine-oxime PD-fatigue was associated with reduced perfusion in the frontal lobe (125). Others used PET with dopaminergic and serotonergic markers in fatigued vs. non-fatigued PD patients. Less serotonergic marker binding was found in striatal and limbic regions (thalamus, anterior cingulate, amygdala, insula) in PD-fatigue. The striatal 18F-dopa uptake was similar in fatigued and non-fatigued groups, but voxel-based analysis localized the reduced dopamine uptake to the caudate and insula in PD-fatigue (127). In addition the serotonin transporter (SERT) availability was significantly reduced in the striatum and thalamus of fatigued PD patients, suggesting that increasing the brain level of serotonin may improve PD-fatigue (127). The reduced serotonergic transmission suggests that a disturbed neurotransmitter balance within the basal ganglia and associated regions changes the integration of emotional and motor information in limbic regions, thus resulting in fatigue symptoms (128). With regard to striatal dopamine transporter uptake, results are conflicting. Two studies found no difference between fatigued and non-fatigued PD (127, 129). In the study by Chou et al., striatal dopamine transporter uptake was a significant predictor of fatigue in mild but not moderate-to-severe PD. They postulated that the lack of association between fatigue and nigrostriatal loss in advanced PD may reflect a denervation “floor” effect (130). Many of these studies have assessed advanced disease stages and patients on dopaminergic treatment. In contrast, Tessitore et al. studied fatigue in drug-naïve early PD using resting-state functional MRI (fMRI). Fatigue itself, and fatigue severity were associated with a decreased connectivity within the supplementary motor area and an increased connectivity within the default mode network (121). Importantly, these functional abnormalities occur independently from both dopamine-induced connectivity and structural changes. This study is in line with earlier neurophysiological studies suggesting that abnormal premotor and primary motor cortices connectivity correlate with fatigue (131, 132). Tessitore et al. hypothesized that the increased connectivity of the default mode network represents an initial cognitive compensatory response to the fatigue-related motor connectivity changes. In this sense fatigued PD-patients, when internally oriented, have to increase mental expenditure to maintain the same level of motor planning performance in order to switch more easily to externally oriented processing (121).
In summary, abnormalities in motivation of self-initiated tasks and motor function may play a significant role in the pathophysiology of fatigue (133). While non-dopaminergic basal ganglia pathways seem to be involved in PD-fatigue, the dopaminergic dysfunction may only play a role through extrastriatal projections.
PD patients are twice as likely to develop depression compared to healthy individuals (134). Depressive symptoms affect 40–50% of PD patients and significantly impact quality of life in PD (2). In particular, patients with cognitive impairment, longer disease duration, motor fluctuations, female gender, and higher doses of levodopa are at risk to develop depression (9).
Like other NMS, depression seems to be linked to inflammatory signaling. Increased inflammatory responses have been described both in the brain and peripheral blood of PD patients (135). Depression correlated with a high serum level of IL-10 (136) and IL-6 (137). High levels of both sIL-2R and TNF-α in blood samples from PD patients were significantly associated with more severe depression and anxiety (119). As reflection of CNS involvement, high CRP levels in CSF of PD patients were associated with more severe symptoms of depression (32). However, these findings are not specific for PD. Chronic inflammation in physically ill patients is often associated with symptoms of depression and also occurs in normal aging (138–140). Moreover, PD in general is characterized by elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, tumor necrosis factor, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10, C-reactive protein, and RANTES (141).
Depression in PD is associated with several structural and functional changes in the limbic system. In particular, changes in the amygdala, hippocampus and orbitofrontal cortex were frequently reported in PD depression (142–151). The involvement of the serotonergic system was demonstrated in post-mortem tissue and validated in vivo by several PET imaging studies (152–155). Compared to controls the serotonin transporter binding in non-depressed PD was lower in the striatal region, the orbitofrontal cortex, and the dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex which is an area known to be involved in major depression (155). Using dopaminergic and serotonergic presynaptic transporter radioligands a prominent role of serotonergic degeneration in limbic regions such as the anterior cingulate cortex was demonstrated (156, 157). Other PET studies observed a higher availability of the serotonin transporter in the raphe nuclei and limbic regions of depressed PD patients (152, 153). Likewise, decreased plasma levels of serotonin were found to be correlated with severity of depression (158). However, studies of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in CSF from depressed and non-depressed PD patients, have yielded contradictory results (159), and serotonergic dysfunction alone may only explain vulnerability to depression in PD. Yet, symptoms of depression are also linked to mesolimbic dopaminergic degeneration (160, 161) which is in line with the clinical observation of improvement of depression by dopaminergic treatment (162).
From this overview emerges a comprehensive picture of recent fluid and imaging biomarkers which have been studied in a number of clearly defined and sizable cohorts of PD patients with PD. Especially longitudinal studies are necessary to make the biomarkers potentially useful for therapeutic or even clinical trial evaluation. A number of recent studies have provided ample evidence for specific predictive biomarkers across multiple domains combining clinical, biochemical, and neuroimaging information. Yet, at this stage a lack of standardized and comparable methods preclude clinical everyday use of these biomarkers beyond their value as diagnostic or prognostic tools in cohorts of patients. Thus, more research needs to be undertaken into finding reliable combinations of predictors of NMS in PD on an individual level, and standardization and harmonization of protocols in particular in CSF handling and neuroimaging has to be taken further.
TP and JG: conception, collection of data, interpretation of data, drafting the work; OW: revising the work critically for important intellectual content.
Conflict of Interest Statement
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
We thank Elena Huß for assistance of data collection.
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Keywords: Parkinson's disease, biomarker, non-motor syndromes, depression, fatigue, dementia
Citation: Prell T, Witte OW and Grosskreutz J (2019) Biomarkers for Dementia, Fatigue, and Depression in Parkinson's Disease. Front. Neurol. 10:195. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2019.00195
Received: 01 October 2018; Accepted: 15 February 2019;
Published: 08 March 2019.
Edited by:Tobias Warnecke, University Hospital Münster, Germany
Reviewed by:Walter Maetzler, University of Kiel, Germany
Gennaro Pagano, King's College London, United Kingdom
Copyright © 2019 Prell, Witte and Grosskreutz. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
*Correspondence: Tino Prell, email@example.com