Transcranial focused ultrasound (tFUS) and transcranial unfocused ultrasound (tUS) neuromodulation: from theoretical principles to stimulation practices.
- 1Unit of Neurophysiology and Neuroengineering of Human-Technology Interaction, School of Medicine, Campus Bio-Medico University, Italy
Transcranial focused ultrasound is an emerging technique for non invasive neurostimulation. Compared to magnetic or electric non invasive brain stimulation, this technique has an higher spatial resolution and can reach deep structures. In addition, both animal and human studies suggest that, potentially, different site showed that every site of central or peripheral nervous system, can be targeted by this technique. Depending on stimulation parameters transcranial focused ultrasound is able to determine a wide spectrum of effects, ranging from suppression or stimulation facilitation of neural activity to tissue ablation.
The aim is to review the state of the art of human transcranial focused ultrasound neuromodulation literature, exploring the theoretical principles which underlie the explanation of the bioeffect on neural tissues, and showing the stimulation techniques and parameters used and their outcome in term of clinical, neurophysiological or neuroimaging results and safety.
Keywords: focused ultrasound, transcranial stimulation, Non Invasive Brain Stimulation (NIBS), Transcranial focused ultrasound (tFUS), Transcranial ultrasound (tUS)
Received: 18 Feb 2019;
Accepted: 07 May 2019.
Edited by:Matteo Bologna, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
Reviewed by:Jérôme Sallet, University of Oxford, United Kingdom
Hyungmin Kim, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), South Korea
Copyright: © 2019 di Biase, Falato and Di Lazzaro. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: MD. Lazzaro di Biase, Unit of Neurophysiology and Neuroengineering of Human-Technology Interaction, School of Medicine, Campus Bio-Medico University, Rome, Italy, firstname.lastname@example.org