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Front. Neurol. | doi: 10.3389/fneur.2019.01030

Encephalitis with Antibodies Against the GABAB Receptor: High Mortality and Risk Factors

Jing f. Lin1, Chen Li2, Ai q. Li1, Xu Liu1, Rui Wang1, Chu Chen1,  Dong Zhou1 and  Zhen Hong3*
  • 1Department of Neurology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, China
  • 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, 416 Hospital of China National Nuclear Corporation, China
  • 3West China Hospital, Sichuan University, China

Objective: To measure mortality, identify predictors of death and investigate causes of death in patients with anti-gamma-aminobutyric-acid B receptor (anti-GABABR) encephalitis.
Methods: Prospective analysis of anti-GABABR encephalitis cases diagnosed between June 2013 and August 2018 in West China Hospital of Sichuan University, with assessment of factors associated with mortality.
Results: A total of 28 patients (11 females) with anti-GABABR encephalitis were included in this study. After a maximum time of 52 months (median 11 months, range 2–52) of follow-up, 9 (32.1%) patients died, with a median survival time of 6.5 months. Five patients died of tumor progression, one patient died of convulsive status epilepticus, one patient died of septic shock, and two patients died of severe pneumonia. Predictors of death were older age at onset (P=0.025), presence of a tumor (66.7% vs 15.8%, P=0.013), the number of complications (2.6 vs 1.0, P=0.009) and deep venous thrombosis (33.3% vs 0, P=0.026).
Conclusion: Patients with GABABR encephalitis have a high mortality rate within 5 years. Older age at onset, presence a tumor, the number of complications and deep venous thrombosis are associated with death.

Keywords: Anti-GABABR encephalitis, tumors, prognosis, Mortality, Predictors of death

Received: 20 Apr 2019; Accepted: 11 Sep 2019.

Copyright: © 2019 Lin, Li, Li, Liu, Wang, Chen, Zhou and Hong. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Mx. Zhen Hong, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China, hongzhengoog@aliyun.com