Systematic Review ARTICLE
The effect of Mindfulness-Based Interventions on Tinnitus Burden. A Systematic Review.
- 1UMC Utrecht Brain Center, Netherlands
- 2University Medical Center Utrecht, Netherlands
Background: Tinnitus can be a disabling condition. Limited treatment options exist. Little is known about the effect of Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBI) on tinnitus. Our objectives were to assess the effect of a Mindfulness-Based Intervention on 1) tinnitus burden and 2) depression and/or anxiety.
Methods: a systematic search was conducted in PubMed Medline, EMBASE and PsycInfo combining the terms and synonyms of ‘’Tinnitus’’ and ‘’Mindfulness’’. The most recent search was performed on December 4th 2018. This systematic review was written according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Two independent authors identified studies, assessed the risk of bias and extracted data. Studies were considered eligible if they included adults with tinnitus, performed a protocolled Mindfulness Based Intervention and measured tinnitus burden with a validated questionnaires. Studies were appraised with either the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool or the MINORS criteria, depending on their design.
Results: The systematic search yielded seven articles. Three randomised controlled trials, three cohort studies and one comparative controlled trial. Two of three RCT’s showed a statistically significant decrease in tinnitus burden scores directly after treatment in the mindfulness group compared to the control group. One of three RCT’s showed a statistically significant effect of mindfulness therapy compared to the control group on a depression questionnaire directly post treatment.
Conclusions: A decrease of tinnitus burden in Mindfulness Based Interventions can be observed directly post-therapy. No effect was observed for depression and anxiety in tinnitus patients. Long term effects remain uncertain. Mindfulness may have a place in tinnitus therapy, however the long term effects need to be researched.
Keywords: Tinnitus, mindfulness, Cognitive behavioral theraphy, Depression, Anxiety
Received: 16 Jul 2019;
Accepted: 10 Oct 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Rademaker, Stegeman, Ho-Kang-You, Stokroos and Smit. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: MD. Maaike Rademaker, UMC Utrecht Brain Center, Utrecht, Netherlands, firstname.lastname@example.org