Stem cells and cellular origins of breast cancer: updates in rationale, controversies and therapeutic implications
- 1Department of Surgical Oncology, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, China
- 2Department of Cardiology, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, China
- 3Hangzhou Medical College, China
Breast cancer stem cells have been known to contribute immensely to the carcinogenesis of the breast and therapeutic resistance in the clinic. Current studies show that breast cancer stem cell population is heterogeneous with various cellular markers and regulatory signaling pathways. Even different subtypes of breast cancer have distinct BCSC subtypes and frequencies. In this review, we provide an overview of the characteristics of breast cancer stem cells, including the various molecular markers, the prominent regulatory signaling and complex microenvironment. The cellular origins of breast cancer are discussed to understand the stem cell heterogeneity and their diverse differentiations. Importantly, we also outline the recent advances and controversies in the therapeutic implications of breast cancer stem cells in different breast cancer subtypes.
Keywords: breast cancer, stem cell, cellular origins, therapeutic implications., heterogeneity
Received: 28 Jan 2019;
Accepted: 09 Aug 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Zhou, Chen, Zou, Chen, Qi and Chen. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Dr. Jiaojiao Zhou, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Department of Surgical Oncology, Hangzhou, China, email@example.com
Dr. Yiding Chen, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Department of Surgical Oncology, Hangzhou, China, firstname.lastname@example.org