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New Advances in RNA Targeting

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Front. Pharmacol. | doi: 10.3389/fphar.2019.00451

microRNA post transcriptional regulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in immunopathologies

  • 1Institute of Fundamental Medicine and Biology, Kazan Federal University, Russia
  • 2University of Nevada, Reno, United States

Inflammation has a crucial role in protection against various pathogens. The inflammasome, is an intracellular multiprotein signaling complex, that is linked to pathogen sensing and initiation of the inflammatory response in physiological and pathological conditions. The most characterized inflammasome is the NLRP3 inflammasome, which is a known sensor of cell stress and is tightly regulated in resting cells. However, altered regulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome is found in several pathological conditions, including autoimmune disease and cancer. NLRP3 expression was shown to be post transcriptionally regulated and multiple miRNA have been implicated in post-transcriptional regulation of the inflammasome. Therefore, in recent years, miRNA based post transcriptional control of NLRP3 has become a focus of much research, especially as a potential therapeutic approach. In this review, we provide a summary of the recent investigations on the role of miRNA in the post transcriptional control of the NLRP3 inflammasome, a key regulator of pro-inflammatory IL-1β and IL-18 cytokine production. Current approaches to targeting the inflammasome product were shown to be an effective treatment for diseases linked to NLRP3 overexpression. Although utilizing NLRP3 targeting miRNAs was shown to be a successful therapeutic approach in several animal models, their therapeutic application in patients remains to be determined.

Keywords: NRLP3, Inflammasome, microRNA, epigenetic, Inflammation, Disease

Received: 12 Jan 2019; Accepted: 08 Apr 2019.

Edited by:

Hector A. Cabrera-Fuentes, University of Giessen, Germany

Reviewed by:

Saverio Bellusci, University of Giessen, Germany
Federica Laudisi, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy
Moritz Haneklaus, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom  

Copyright: © 2019 Tezcan, Martynova, Gilazieva, Rizvanov and Khaiboullina. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: MD, PhD. Svetlana Khaiboullina, University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, United States, sv.khaiboullina@gmail.com