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Original Research ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Pharmacol. | doi: 10.3389/fphar.2019.00573

Extract from Plectranthus amboinicus inhibit maturation and release of interleukin 1β through inhibition of NF-κB nuclear translocation and NLRP3 inflammasome activation

 Wohn-Jenn Leu1, Jui-Ching Chen2 and  Jih-Hwa Guh1*
  • 1National Taiwan University, Taiwan
  • 2Oneness Biotech, Taiwan

Uncontrolled inflammation may produce massive inflammatory cytokines, in which interleukin 1β (IL-1β) plays a key role, resulting in tissue damage and serious disorders. The activation of NLRP3 inflammasome is one of the major mechanisms in maturation and release of IL-1β. Plectranthus amboinicus is a perennial herb. Several pharmacological activities of natural components and crude extracts from Plectranthus amboinicus have been reported including anti-inflammation; however, the underlying mechanism is not clear. Phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate-differentiated THP-1 monocytic leukemia cells were used as a reliable model in this study to examine the effect on inflammasome signaling pathway by PA-F4, an extract from Plectranthus amboinicus. PA-F4 inhibited ATP-induced release of caspase-1, IL-1β and IL-18 from LPS-primed cells. PA-F4 induced a concentration-dependent inhibition of both ASC dimerization and oligomerization in cells under LPS priming plus ATP stimulation. Co-immunoprecipitation of NLRP3 and ASC demonstrated that PA-F4 significantly blunted the interaction between NLRP3 and ASC. Furthermore, PA-F4 completely abolished ATP-induced K+ efflux reaction in LPS-primed cells. Taken together, PA-F4 displayed an inhibitory activity on NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Moreover, PA-F4 also inhibited LPS-induced p65 NF-κB activation, suggesting an inhibitory activity on LPS priming step. Further identification showed that rosmarinic acid, cirsimaritin, salvigenin and carvacrol, four constituents in PA-F4, inhibited LPS-induced IL-6 release. In contrast, rosmarinic acid, cirsimaritin and carvacrol but not salvigenin inhibited ATP-induced caspase-1 release from LPS-primed cells. In conclusion, PA-F4 displayed an inhibitory activity on activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. PA-F4 inhibited LPS priming step through block of p65 NF-κB activation. It also inhibited ATP-induced signaling pathways in LPS-primed cells including the inhibition of both ASC dimerization and oligomerization, K+ efflux reaction, and the release reaction of caspase-1, IL-1 and IL-18. Rosmarinic acid, cirsimaritin, salvigenin and carvacrol could partly explain PA-F4-mediated inhibitory activity on blocking the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome.

Keywords: Plectranthus amboinicus, Rosmarinic acid, Cirsimaritin, carvacrol, NLRP3 inflammasome

Received: 03 Jan 2019; Accepted: 06 May 2019.

Edited by:

Patrizia Ballerini, Università degli Studi G. d'Annunzio Chieti e Pescara, Italy

Reviewed by:

Giustino Orlando, Università degli Studi G. d'Annunzio Chieti e Pescara, Italy
Angelo Sala, University of Milan, Italy  

Copyright: © 2019 Leu, Chen and Guh. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Prof. Jih-Hwa Guh, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan,