Original Research ARTICLE
Patchouli essential oil and its derived compounds revealed prebiotic-like effects in C57BL/6J mice
- 1State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicines, Macau University of Science and Technology, China
- 2Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of New Chinese Medicinal Development and Research, Mathematical Engineering Academy of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, China
Pogostemon cablin (PC) is a Chinese medicinal plant traditionally used for the treatment of gastrointestinal symptoms. To investigate the prebiotic effect of patchouli essential oil (PEO) and its derived compounds through the modulation of gut microbiota (GM). C57BL/6J mice were treated with the PEO and three active components of PEO, i.e. patchouli alcohol (PA), pogostone (PO) and β-patchoulene (β-PAE) for 15 consecutive days. Fecal samples and mucosa were collected for GM biomarkers studies. PEO, PA, PO, and β-PAE improve the gut epithelial barrier by altering the status of E-cadherin vs. N-cadherin expressions, and increasing the mucosal p-lysozyme and Muc 2. Moreover, the treatments also facilitate the polarization of M1 to M2 macrophage phenotypes, meanwhile, suppress the pro-inflammatory cytokines. Fecal microbial DNAs were analyzed and evaluated for GM composition by ERIC-PCR and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. The GM diversity was increased with the treated groups compared to the control. Further analysis showed that some known short chain fatty acids (SCFAs)-producing bacteria, e.g. Anaerostipes butyraticus, Butytivibrio fibrisolvens, Clostridium jejuense, Eubacterium uniforme, and Lactobacillus lactis were significantly enriched in the treated groups. In addition, the key SCFAs receptors, GPR 41, 43 and 109a, were significantly stimulated in the gut epithelial layer of the treated mice. By contract, the relative abundance of pathogens Sutterlla spp., Fusobacterium mortiferum, and Helicobacter spp. were distinctly reduced by the treatments with PEO and β-PAE. Our findings provide insightful information that the microbiota/host dynamic interaction may play a key role for the pharmacological activities of PEO, PA, PO, and β-PAE.
Keywords: Patchouli essential oil, Patchouli alcohol, pogostone, β-patchoulene, Gut Microbiota, Prebiotic effects
Received: 11 May 2019;
Accepted: 24 Sep 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Hsiao, Leong, Huang, Khan, Xia, Li, Liu, Li, Han and Su. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Prof. W.L.Wendy Hsiao, State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicines, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau, China, email@example.com