The heme oxygenase/biliverdin reductase system as effector of the neuroprotective outcomes of herb-based nutritional supplements
- 1Institute of Pharmacology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy
- 2Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
- 3Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Italy
- 4Agostino Gemelli University Polyclinic, Italy
Over the last few years, several preclinical studies have shown that some herbal products, such as ferulic acid, ginkgo biloba and resveratrol, exert neuroprotective effects through the modulation of the heme oxygenase/biliverdin reductase system. Unfortunately, sufficient data supporting the shift of knowledge from preclinical studies to humans, particularly in neurodegenerative diseases, are not yet available in the literature. The purpose of this review is to summarize the studies and the main results achieved on the potential therapeutic role of the interaction between the heme oxygenase/biliverdin reductase system with ferulic acid, ginkgo biloba and resveratrol. Some critical issues have also been reported, mainly concerning the safety profile and the toxicological sequelae associated to the supplementation with the herbs mentioned above, based on both current literature and specific reports issued by the competent Regulatory Authorities.
Keywords: ferulic acid, Ginkgo biloba, heme oxygenase, Neuroprotection, resveratrol 3
Received: 27 Aug 2019;
Accepted: 10 Oct 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Mhillaj, Cuomo, Trabace and Mancuso. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Dr. Cesare Mancuso, Agostino Gemelli University Polyclinic, Rome, Italy, firstname.lastname@example.org