About this Research Topic
Small non-coding oligonucleotides, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. Gene silencing by miRNAs is an important epigenetic mechanism underlying cardiovascular diseases. MiRNAs are expressed in cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells; their regulation is associated with the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases, including cardiac remodeling and fibrosis, apoptosis, inflammation, proliferation, angiogenesis, and metabolism.
Altered expression of miRNA profiles in cardiovascular system (both in tissues and circulating) are associated with disorders such as heart failure, atherosclerosis, and cardiomyopathies of various etiologies. These molecules have a highly conserved sequence between species and their expression profile can exhibit high tissue specificity. Circulating miRNAs are considered excellent biomarkers in clinical practice, they can be obtained with minimal invasive techniques, they are secreted by necrotic or living cells, and their profile is altered in pathophysiological conditions. Different studies have shown the correlation between miRNAs profiles in cardiac tissue and blood (plasma or serum), opening the possibility of using these circulating miRNAs as biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases even in subclinical phases. The use of miRNAs as biomarkers may have a crucial role in patient prognosis; in addition to their high potential to improve risk algorithms in atrial fibrillation, as well as in the management of health system resources. To date, and despite the promising results obtained in a large number of studies, miRNAs have not been used yet as biomarkers of atrial fibrillation in clinical practice.
The goal of this Research Topic is to highlight miRNA profiles that could be used as diagnostic or therapeutic tools in the management of atrial fibrillation.
Sub-themes for this Research Topic include, but are not limited to:
1) miRNAs as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of atrial fibrillation.
2) Mechanistic effects of miRNAs in atrial fibrillation.
3) Potential therapeutic role of miRNA in atrial fibrillation.
Keywords: microRNAs, atrial fibrillation, arrhythmia, biomarkers, therapeutics targets, prognosis
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