Original Research ARTICLE
Identification of Salivary Microbiota and its Association with Host Inflammatory Mediators in Periodontitis
- 1Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden
- 2Karolinska Institute (KI), Sweden
- 3Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden
- 4Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden
Periodontitis is a microbial-induced chronic inflammatory disease, which may not only result in tooth loss, but can also contribute to the development of various systemic diseases. The transition from healthy to diseased periodontium depends on microbial dysbiosis and impaired host immune response. Although periodontitis is a common disease as well as associated with various systemic inflammatory conditions, the taxonomic profiling of the salivary microbiota in periodontitis and its association with host immune and inflammatory mediators has not been reported. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify key pathogens and their potential interaction with the host’s inflammatory mediators in saliva samples for periodontitis risk assessment. The microbial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and the levels of inflammatory mediators were performed in saliva samples from patients with chronic periodontitis and periodontally healthy control subjects.
The salivary microbial community composition differed significantly between patients with chronic periodontitis and healthy controls. Our analyses identified a number of microbes, including bacteria assigned to Eubacterium saphenum, Tannerella forsythia, Filifactor alocis, Streptococcus mitis/parasanguinis, Parvimonas micra, Prevotella sp., Phocaeicola sp., and Fretibacterium sp. as more abundant in periodontitis, compared to healthy controls. In samples from healthy individuals, we identified Campylobacter concisus, and Veillonella sp. as more abundant. Integrative analysis of the microbiota and inflammatory mediators/cytokines revealed associations that included positive correlations between the pathogens Treponema sp. and Selenomas sp. and the cytokines chitinase 3-like 1, sIL-6R, sTNF-R1 and gp130/sIL-6R. In addition, a negative correlation was identified between IL-10 and Filifactor alocis.
Our results reveal distinct and disease-specific patterns of salivary microbial composition between patients with periodontitis and healthy controls, as well as significant correlations between microbiota and host-mediated inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, the combination of analyses showed increased abundance of Eubacterium saphenum, Tannerella forsythia, Filifactor alocis, Streptococcus mitis/parasanguinis, Prevotella sp., Phocaeicola sp., and Fretibacterium sp. suggesting these microbes as potential salivary-based biomarker panel for diagnosis of the chronic infectious disease periodontitis.
Keywords: 16S rRNA sequencing, Cytokines, inflammatory mediators, microbiota, microbiome, Periodontitis, Saliva
Received: 18 Apr 2019;
Accepted: 05 Jun 2019.
Edited by:Ulvi K. Gürsoy, University of Turku, Finland
Reviewed by:J C. Fenno, University of Michigan, United States
Daniel Belstrøm, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Copyright: © 2019 Lundmark, Hu, Huss, Johannsen, Andersson and Lindberg. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Dr. Anna Lundmark, Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, SE-141 04, Sweden, email@example.com
Dr. Tülay Y. Lindberg, Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, SE-141 04, Sweden, firstname.lastname@example.org