Original Research ARTICLE
Testosterone promotes glioblastoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion through androgen receptor activation
- 1Unidad de Investigación en Reproducción Humana, Facultad de Química, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México, Mexico
- 2Faculty of Chemistry, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico
Glioblastomas (GBM) are the most frequent and aggressive human brain tumors due to their high capacity to migrate and invade normal brain tissue. Epidemiological data report that GBM occur in a greater proportion in men than in women (3:2), suggesting the participation of sex hormones in the development of these tumors. It has been reported an increase in testosterone (T) levels in patients with GBM. In addition, androgen receptor (AR) is overexpressed in human GBM, and genetic silencing of AR, and its pharmacological inhibition, induce GBM cell death in vivo and in vitro. However, the role of T in proliferation, migration and invasion in human GBM cell lines has not been evaluated. We observed that T increased the number of U87, U251 and D54 cells derived from human GBM due to an increase in cell proliferation. This induction was blocked with flutamide, an antagonist of AR. T also induced migration and invasion of GBM cells that flutamide partially blocked. T reduces AR expression at 24 hours. These data suggest that T through AR contributes to the progression of GBM by promoting proliferation, migration and invasion.
Keywords: glioblastomas, Testosterone, Androgen Receptor (AR), Cell Proliferation, cell migration, cell invasion
Received: 10 Oct 2018;
Accepted: 10 Jan 2019.
Edited by:Gabriella Castoria, Second University of Naples, Italy
Reviewed by:Paola Negri-Cesi, University of Milan, Italy
Michael P. Lisanti, School of Enviroment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, United Kingdom
Marzia Di Donato, Università degli Studi della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli Caserta, Italy
Copyright: © 2019 Rodríguez-Lozano, Piña-Medina, Hansberg-Pastor and CAMACHO-ARROYO. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Dr. IGNACIO CAMACHO-ARROYO, Unidad de Investigación en Reproducción Humana, Facultad de Química, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México, Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico, email@example.com