Dysregulated Mitochondrial Dynamics and Metabolism in Obesity, Diabetes and Cancer
- 1Department of Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope, United States
- 2City of Hope National Medical Center, United States
Metabolism describes the life-sustaining chemical reactions in organisms that provide both energy and building blocks for cellular survival and proliferation. Dysregulated metabolism leads to many life-threatening diseases including obesity, diabetes and cancer. Mitochondria, subcellular organelles, contain the central energy-producing metabolic pathway, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Also, mitochondria exist in a dynamic network orchestrated by extracellular nutrient levels and intracellular energy needs. Upon stimulation, mitochondria undergo consistent inter-change through fusion (small to big) and fission (big to small) processes. Mitochondrial fusion is primarily controlled by three GTPases: mitofusin 1 (Mfn1), Mfn2, and optic atrophy 1 (Opa1); while mitochondrial fission is primarily regulated by GTPase dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1). Dysregulated activity of these GTPases results in disrupted mitochondrial dynamics and cellular metabolism. This review will update the metabolic roles of these GTPases in obesity, diabetes and cancer.
Keywords: mitochondrial dynamics, GTPase, TCA cycle, Energy Metabolism, Mdivi-1
Received: 13 Mar 2019;
Accepted: 05 Aug 2019.
Edited by:Mei Kong, University of California, Irvine, United States
Reviewed by:Vanina Romanello, Veneto Institute of Molecular Medicine (VIMM), Italy
Jiangbin Ye, Stanford University, United States
Copyright: © 2019 Dai and Jiang. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Dr. Lei Jiang, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, United States, email@example.com