Orexins as novel therapeutic targets in inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases
- 1INSERM U1149 Centre de Recherche sur l'Inflammation, France
- 2INSERM U1234 Physiopathologie, Autoimmunité, Maladies Neuromusculaires et THErapies Régénératrices (PANTHER), France
Orexins (orexin-A (OXA) and orexin-B (OXB)) are two isoforms of neuropeptides produced by the hypothalamus. The main biological actions of orexins, focused on the central nervous system, are to control the sleep/wake process, appetite and feeding, energy homeostasis, drug addiction and cognitive processes. These effects are mediated by two G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) subtypes named OX1R and OX2R. In accordance with the synergic and dynamic relationship between the nervous and immune systems, orexins also have neuroprotective and immuno-regulatory (i.e. anti-inflammatory) properties. The present review gathers recent data demonstrating that orexins may have a therapeutic potential in several pathologies with an immune component including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, narcolepsy, obesity, intestinal bowel diseases, septic shock and cancers.
Keywords: Orexins (hypocretins), Neuropeptides, GPCR (G protein-coupled receptors), Inflammation, Neuroprotection, Gastroenterology, Autoimmune Diseases, Cancer
Received: 30 Jul 2019;
Accepted: 02 Oct 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Couvineau, Voisin, NICOLE, Gratio, Abad and Tan. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Dr. Alain Couvineau, INSERM U1149 Centre de Recherche sur l'Inflammation, Paris, 75018, Île-de-France, France, firstname.lastname@example.org
Dr. Yossan-Var Tan, INSERM U1234 Physiopathologie, Autoimmunité, Maladies Neuromusculaires et THErapies Régénératrices (PANTHER), Rouen, 76183, France, email@example.com