Pesticides with potential thyroid hormone-disrupting effects: a review of recent data
- 1UMR 7221 Laboratoire Physiologie Moléculaire de l'adaptation, France
- 2Adaptation du Vivant Departement, UMR 7221 Laboratoire Physiologie Moléculaire de l'adaptation, France
Plant Protection Products, more commonly referred to as pesticides and biocides, are used to control a wide range of yield-reducing pests including insects, fungi, nematodes and weeds. Concern has been raised that some pesticides may act as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with the potential to interfere with the hormone systems of non- target invertebrates and vertebrates, including humans. EDCs act at low doses and particularly vulnerable periods of exposure include pre- and perinatal development. Of particular concern is the number of pesticides with the potential to interfere with the developing nervous system and brain, notably with thyroid hormone signalling. Across vertebrates, thyroid hormone orchestrates metamorphosis, brain development and metabolism. Pesticide action on thyroid homeostasis can involve interference with TH production and its control, displacement from distributor proteins and liver metabolism. Here we focused on thyroid endpoints for each of the different classes of pesticides reviewing epidemiological and experimental studies carried out both in in vivo and in vitro. We conclude first, that many pesticides were placed on the market with insufficient testing, other than acute or chronic toxicity, and second, that thyroid-specific endpoints for neurodevelopmental effects and mixture assessment are largely absent from regulatory directives.
Keywords: Thyroid Hormones, Pesticides, Endocrine Disruptors, organochlorine, organophosphates, Carbamates, pyrethroids, fipronil, Neonicotinoids, neurodevelopment
Received: 29 Apr 2019;
Accepted: 14 Oct 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Leemans, Couderq, Demeneix and FINI. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Mrs. Michelle Leemans, UMR 7221 Laboratoire Physiologie Moléculaire de l'adaptation, Paris, France, email@example.com
Dr. Jean-Baptiste FINI, UMR 7221 Laboratoire Physiologie Moléculaire de l'adaptation, Adaptation du Vivant Departement, Paris, France, firstname.lastname@example.org