IGFBP-2 signaling in the brain: From brain development to higher order brain functions
- 1Case Western Reserve University, United States
Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) is a pleiotropic polypeptide that functions as autocrine and/or paracrine growth factors. IGFBP-2 is the most abundant of the IGFBPs in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and developing brain showed the highest expression of IGFBP-2. IGFBP-2 expressed in the hippocampus, cortex, olfactory lobes, cerebellum, and amygdala. IGFBP-2 mRNA expression is seen in meninges, blood vessels, and in small cell-body neurons (interneurons) and astrocytes. The expression pattern of IGFBP-2 is often developmentally regulated and cell-specific. Biological activities of IGFBP-2 which are independent of their abilities to bind to insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are mediated by the heparin binding domain (HBD). To execute IGF-independent functions, some IGFBPs have shown to bind with their putative receptors or to translocate inside the cells. Thus IGFBP-2 functions can be mediated both via insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 (IGF-IR) and independent of IGF-Rs. In this review, I suggest that IGFBP-2 is not only involved in the growth, development of the brain but also with the regulation of neuronal plasticity to modulate high-level cognitive operations such as spatial learning and memory and information processing. Hence, IGFBP-2 serves as a neurotrophic factor which acts via metaplastic signaling from embryonic to adult stages.
Keywords: learning and memory, CNS, Growth & Repair, Information Processing, IGFBP-2, IGF-IR
Received: 10 Jul 2019;
Accepted: 08 Nov 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Khan. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Dr. Shumsuzzaman Khan, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, United States, firstname.lastname@example.org