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Front. Energy Res. | doi: 10.3389/fenrg.2019.00069

Geographically parametrized residential sector energy and service profile

  • 1École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland

The large share of energy consumption in the residential sector has necessitated better understanding and evaluation of its energy needs, with the objective of identifying possible pathways for improvement. This work uses heat signature models and climate data to build a parameterized residential sector profile for different climatic zones in Europe. The sector profile is validated using Rotterdam, NL as a case study and the results show variations from the real energy demand profile of less than 10%, primarily caused by cultural and climatic differences between Rotterdam the rest of Western Europe. The energy and service profile constructed herein is well-suited for exploring the best technologies for supplying residential requirements, drawing from the domain of process integration. This work demonstrates the usefulness of the residential profile by applying process integration techniques within a mixed integer linear programming formulation to evaluate optimal energy conversion technologies for different district energy networks and potential waste heat recovery from industrial plants located in the vicinity of the residential area. The results show that switching to a fully electric energy providing system can lead to operating cost savings of 48% and CO2emission savings up to 100%, depending on the mix of electricity generation. The utilisation of the sector profile is also exemplified using the city of Rotterdam, where it is shown that industrial waste heat recovery can lead to operating cost and environmental impact savings of 9% and 20%, respectively.

Keywords: residential, sector profile, District energy, CO2 networks, heating and cooling, Heat Recovery, Process integration, industrial symbiosis, optimisation, mathematical programming, Climate zones, Europe

Received: 12 Mar 2019; Accepted: 11 Jul 2019.

Edited by:

Rangan Banerjee, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, India

Reviewed by:

Athanasios I. Papadopoulos, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Greece
Jeffrey R. Seay, University of Kentucky, United States  

Copyright: © 2019 Suciu, Kantor, Bütün and Marechal. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Miss. Raluca A. Suciu, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, raluca-ancuta.suciu@epfl.ch