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Review ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Energy Res. | doi: 10.3389/fenrg.2019.00115

Factors that control the formation of dendrites and other morphologies on lithium metal anodes

  • 1University of California, Berkeley, United States
  • 2Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, United States

Lithium metal is a promising anode material for next-generation rechargeable batteries, but non-uniform electrodeposition of lithium is a significant barrier. These non-uniform deposits are often referred to as lithium “dendrites”, although their morphologies can vary. We have surveyed the literature on lithium electrodeposition through three classes of electrolytes: liquids, polymers and inorganic solids. We find that the non-uniform deposits can be grouped into six classes: whiskers, moss, dendrites, globules, trees and cracks. These deposits were obtained in a variety of cell geometries using both unidirectional deposition and cell cycling. The main result of the study is a figure where the morphology of electrodeposited lithium is plotted as a function of two variables: shear modulus and current density normalized by the limiting current density. We show that specific morphologies are confined to contiguous regions on this two-dimensional plot.

Keywords: Dendrite, lithium metal, Limiting Current, Electrolytes, rechargeable batteries

Received: 28 Jun 2019; Accepted: 04 Oct 2019.

Copyright: © 2019 Frenck, Sethi, Maslyn and Balsara. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Prof. Nitash P. Balsara, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, United States, nbalsara@berkeley.edu