Immunobiotics for the bovine host: their interaction with intestinal epithelial cells and their effect on antiviral immunity
- 1Centro de Referencia para Lactobacilos, Argentina
- 2Tohoku University, Japan
- 3Utrecht University, Netherlands
The scientific community has reported several cases of microbes that exhibit elevated rates of antibiotic resistance in different regions of the planet. Due to this emergence of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms, the use of antibiotics as promoters of livestock animals’ growth is being banned in most countries around the world. One of the challenges of agricultural immunology therefore is to find alternatives by modulating the immune system of animals in drug-independent safe food production systems. In this regard, in an effort to supplant antibiotics from bovine feeds, several alternatives were proposed including the use of immunomodulatory probiotics (immunobiotics). The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the status of the modulation of intestinal antiviral innate immunity of the bovine host by immunobiotics, and the beneficial impact of immunobiotics on viral infections, focused on intestinal epithelial cells. The results of our group, which demonstrate the capacity of immunobiotic strains to beneficially modulate Toll-like receptor 3-triggered immune responses in bovine intestinal epithelial cells and improve the resistance to viral infections, are highlighted. This review provides comprehensive information on the innate immune response of bovine intestinal epithelial cells against virus, which can be further investigated for the development of strategies aimed to improve defenses in the bovine host.
Keywords: immunobiotics, antiviral immunity, beneficial microbes, Bovine rotavirus, TLR3 pathway, Inflammation, agricultural immunology
Received: 10 Nov 2017;
Accepted: 06 Feb 2018.
Edited by:Jia Sun, Jiangnan University, China
Reviewed by:Pinyi Lu, Biotherapeutics, Inc., United States
Xu Zhang, The Scripps Research Institute, United States
Copyright: © 2018 Villena, Aso, Rutten, Takahashi, Van Eden and Kitazawa. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Dr. Julio Villena, Centro de Referencia para Lactobacilos, San Miguel de Tucuman, Argentina, email@example.com