VLP, LIPOSOME, AND POLYMERIC PARTICLE BASED VACCINES AGAINST HIV-1
- 1Microbiology and Immunology, University of Western Ontario, Canada
It is acknowledged that vaccines remain the best hope for eliminating the HIV-1 epidemic. However, the failure to produce effective vaccine immunogens and the inability of conventional delivery strategies to elicit the desired immune responses remains a central theme and has ultimately led to a significant roadblock in HIV vaccine development. Consequently, significant efforts have been applied to generate novel vaccine antigens and delivery agents, which mimic viral structures for optimal immune induction. Here we review the latest developments that have occurred in the nanoparticle vaccine field, with special emphasis on strategies that are being utilized to attain highly immunogenic, systemic and mucosal anti-HIV humoral and cellular immune responses. This includes the design of novel immunogens, the central role of antigen-presenting cells, delivery routes and biodistribution of nanoparticles to lymph nodes. In particular, we will focus on virus-like-particle (VLP) formulations and their preclinical uses within the HIV prophylactic vaccine setting.
Keywords: Vaccines, Virus like particles (VLPs), Nanoparticles, Immunogenicity, HIV-1
Received: 29 Nov 2017;
Accepted: 07 Feb 2018.
Edited by:Rajko Reljic, St George's, University of London, United Kingdom
Reviewed by:Thorsten Demberg, Immatics Biotechnologies (Germany), Germany
Evelina Angov, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, United States
Copyright: © 2018 Gao, Wijewardhana and Mann. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Dr. Jamie F. Mann, University of Western Ontario, Microbiology and Immunology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, N6B 3R6, Ontario, Canada, email@example.com