Mini Review ARTICLE
Catestatin as a target for treatment of inflammatory diseases.
- 1Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Netherlands
- 2VA San Diego Healthcare System, United States
- 3University of California, San Diego, United States
- 4Groningen Biomolecular Science and Biotechnology Institute (GBB), University of Groningen, Netherlands
It is increasingly clear that inflammatory diseases and cancers are influenced by cleavage products of the pro-hormone chromogranin A (CgA), such as the 21-amino acids long catestatin (CST). The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the anti-inflammatory effects of CST and its mechanism of action. We discuss evidence proving that CST and its precursor CgA are crucial for maintaining metabolic and immune homeostasis. CST could reduce inflammation in various mouse models for diabetes, colitis and atherosclerosis. In these mouse models, CST treatment resulted in less infiltration of immune cells in affected tissues, although in vitro monocyte migration was increased by CST. Both in vivo and in vitro, CST can shift macrophage differentiation from a pro- to an anti-inflammatory phenotype. Thus, the concept is emerging that CST plays a role in tissue homeostasis by regulating immune cell infiltration and macrophage differentiation. These findings warrant studying the effects of CST in humans and make it an interesting therapeutic target for treatment and/or diagnosis of various metabolic and immune diseases.
Keywords: catestatin (CST), Immune Modulation, Macrophages, anti-inflammatory, inflammatory disease, chromogranin A (CgA)
Received: 17 Jul 2018;
Accepted: 05 Sep 2018.
Edited by:Heiko Mühl, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Reviewed by:Bhalchandra Mirlekar, UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, United States
Teresa Pasqua, Università della Calabria, Italy
Michal A. Rahat, Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Israel
Copyright: © 2018 Muntjewerff, Dunkel, Nicolasen, Mahata and van den Bogaart. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Prof. Sushil K. Mahata, VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, 92161, California, United States, firstname.lastname@example.org
Prof. Geert van den Bogaart, Groningen Biomolecular Science and Biotechnology Institute (GBB), University of Groningen, Groningen, 9700, Netherlands, email@example.com