Impact Factor 5.511

Among the world's top 10 most-cited Immunology journals

This article is part of the Research Topic

Reverse Vaccinology

Original Research ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Immunol. | doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.02280

A web resource for designing subunit vaccine against major pathogenic species of bacteria

 Gajendra P. Raghava1*, Gandharva Nagpal2 and  Salman S. Usmani2
  • 1Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology Delhi, India
  • 2Institute of Microbial Technology (CSIR), India

Evolution has led to the expansion of survival strategies in pathogens including bacteria and emergence of drug resistant strains proved to be a major global threat. Vaccination is a promising strategy to protect human population. Reverse vaccinology is a more robust vaccine development approach especially with the availability of large-scale sequencing data and rapidly dropping cost of the techniques for acquiring such data from various organisms. The present study implements an immunoinformatic approach for screening the possible antigenic proteins among various pathogenic bacteria to systemically arrive at epitope-based vaccine candidates against 14 pathogenic bacteria. 1459 virulence factors and 546 products of essential genes were appraised as target proteins to predict potential epitopes with potential to stimulate different arms of the immune system. To address the self-tolerance, self-epitopes were identified by mapping on 1000 human proteome and were removed. Our analysis revealed that 29 proteins from 5 bacterial species were found as virulent as well as essential to their survival, proved to be most suitable vaccine target against these species. In addition to the prediction of MHC-II binders, B cell and T cell epitopes as well as adjuvants individually from proteins of all 14 bacterial species, a stringent criteria lead us to identify 252 unique epitopes, which are predicted to be T-cell epitopes, B-cell epitopes, MHC II binders and Vaccine Adjuvants. In order to provide service to scientific community, we developed a web server VacTarBac for designing of vaccines against above species of bacteria. This platform integrates a number of tools that includes visualization tools to present antigenicity/epitopes density on an antigenic sequence. These tools will help users to identify most promiscuous vaccine candidates in a pathogenic antigen. This server VacTarBac is available from URL ( ).

Keywords: reverse vaccinology, Vaccine designing, immunotherapeutic, Epitopes, antigen, Essential genes, virulence factor

Received: 29 Jun 2018; Accepted: 13 Sep 2018.

Edited by:

Pedro A. Reche, Complutense University of Madrid, Spain

Reviewed by:

Giampiero Pietrocola, Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Pavia, Italy
Ghita Ghislat, INSERM U1104 Centre d'immunologie de Marseille-Luminy, France  

Copyright: © 2018 Raghava, Nagpal and Usmani. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Prof. Gajendra P. Raghava, Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology Delhi, Delhi, India,