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Front. Immunol. | doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.02640

Respiratory Viral Infection-induced Microbiome Alterations and Secondary Bacterial Pneumonia

 Shigeo Hanada1, 2,  Mina Pirzadeh2, 3, Kyle Y. Carver2, 3 and  Jane C. Deng2, 3*
  • 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Respiratory Center, Toranomon Hospital, Japan
  • 2University of Michigan, United States
  • 3VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System, United States

Influenza and other respiratory viral infections are the most common type of acute respiratory infection. Viral infections predispose patients to secondary bacterial infections, which often have a more severe clinical course. The mechanisms underlying post-viral bacterial infections are complex, and include multifactorial processes mediated by interactions between viruses, bacteria, and the host immune system. Studies over the past 15 years have demonstrated that unique microbial communities reside on the mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract and the respiratory tract, which have both direct and indirect effects on host defense against viral infections. In addition, antiviral immune responses induced by acute respiratory infections such as influenza are associated with changes in microbial composition and function (“dysbiosis”) in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract, which in turn may alter subsequent immune function against secondary bacterial infection or alter the dynamics of inter-microbial interactions, thereby enhancing the proliferation of potentially pathogenic bacterial species. In this review, we summarize the literature on the interactions between host microbial communities and host defense, and how influenza and other acute respiratory viral infections disrupt these interactions, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of secondary bacterial infections.

Keywords: microbiome, Respiratory Viral Infection, Bacterial pneumonia, influenza, innate immunity, Gastrointestinal System

Received: 04 Aug 2018; Accepted: 26 Oct 2018.

Edited by:

John F. Alcorn, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, United States

Reviewed by:

Laurent P. Nicod, Faculté de biologie et de médecine, Universite de Lausanne, Switzerland
Victor C. Huber, University of South Dakota, United States  

Copyright: © 2018 Hanada, Pirzadeh, Carver and Deng. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Jane C. Deng, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, United States,