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Review ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Immunol. | doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.02723

Large Extracellular Vesicles: Have We Found the Holy Grail of Inflammation?

  • 1Department of Pathophysiology, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum, Poland
  • 2Department of Medicine II, Universitätsklinikum des Saarlandes, Germany
  • 3Ludwik Rydygier College of Physicians, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Poland
  • 4Department of Medicine II, Saarland University Medical Center, Saarland University, Germany
  • 5Department of General, Visceral and Thoracic Surgery, Zentralkrankenhaus der Bundeswehr, Germany

The terms microparticles (MPs) and microvesicles (MVs) refer to large extracellular vesicles (EVs) generated from a broad spectrum of cells upon its activation or death by apoptosis. The unique surface antigens of MPs/MVs allow for the identification of their cellular origin as well as its functional characterization. Two basic aspects of MP/MV functions in physiology and pathological conditions are widely considered. Firstly, it has become evident that large EVs have strong procoagulant properties. Secondly, experimental and clinical studies have shown that MPs/MVs play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of inflammation-associated disorders. A cardinal feature of these disorders is an enhanced generation of platelets-, endothelial-, and leukocyte-derived EVs. Nevertheless, anti-inflammatory effects of miscellaneous EV types have also been described, which provided important new insights into the large EV-inflammation axis. Advances in understanding the biology of MPs/MVs have led to the preparation of this review article aimed at discussing the association between large EVs and inflammation, depending on their cellular origin.

Keywords: Microvesicles and exosomes, Inflammation, platelet-derived microvesicles, leukocyte-derived microvesicles, endothelial-derived microvesicles

Received: 23 Jun 2018; Accepted: 05 Nov 2018.

Edited by:

Anne Fletcher, Monash University, Australia

Reviewed by:

Rui E. Castro, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal
Georgia K. Atkin-Smith, La Trobe University, Australia  

Copyright: © 2018 Słomka, Urban, Lukacs-Kornek, Żekanowska, Kornek and Kornek. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence:
Dr. Miroslaw Kornek, Saarland University Medical Center, Saarland University, Department of Medicine II, Homburg, Germany, kornekmiroslaw@aol.com
Dr. Miroslaw Kornek, Saarland University Medical Center, Saarland University, Department of Medicine II, Homburg, Germany, kornekmiroslaw@aol.com