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Original Research ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Immunol. | doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.02764

Dynamics of colon monocyte and macrophage activation during colitis

  • 1University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom
  • 2University of Manchester, United Kingdom

Background
Macrophages are pivotal in coordinating a range of important processes in the intestines, including controlling intracellular infections and limiting damaging inflammation against the microbiota. However, it is unclear how gut macrophages, relative to recruited blood monocytes and other myeloid cells contribute to the intestinal inflammatory milieu nor how macrophages and their monocyte precursors mediate recruitment of other immune cells to the inflamed intestine.

Methods
Myeloid cell populations isolated from colonic IBD or murine dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) induced colitis were assessed using flow cytometry and compared to healthy controls. In addition, mRNA expression profiles in human and murine colon samples, and in macrophages and monocytes from healthy and inflamed murine colons, were analysed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and mRNA microarray.

Results
We show that the macrophage:monocyte balance is disrupted in colon inflammation to favour recruitment of CD14+HLA-DRInt cells in humans, and Ly6CHi monocytes in mice. In addition, we identify that murine blood monocytes receive systemic signals enabling increased release of IL-1β prior to egress from the blood into the colon. Further, once within the colon and relative to other myeloid cells, monocytes represent the dominant local sources of both IL-1β and TNF. Finally, our data reveal that, independent of inflammation, murine colon macrophages act as major sources of Ccl7 and Ccl8 mRNA, chemokines that trigger further recruitment of their pro-inflammatory monocyte precursors.

Conclusions
Our work suggests that strategies targeting macrophage-mediated monocyte recruitment may represent a promising approach for limiting the chronic inflammation that characterises IBD.

Keywords: monocyte, macrophage, Colitis, chemokine, IBD

Received: 24 Jul 2018; Accepted: 09 Nov 2018.

Edited by:

Paul W. Bland, University of Gothenburg, Sweden

Reviewed by:

Anne Hosmalin, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), France
Elisabeth Hultgren Hornquist, Örebro University, Sweden  

Copyright: © 2018 Jones, Bain, Fenton, Kelly, Brown, Ivens, Travis, Cook and MacDonald. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Gareth-Rhys Jones, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, gastrogrj@gmail.com