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Porcine Anti-Viral Immunity

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Front. Immunol. | doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.03023

Dual regulation of nuclear/plasma distribution and modification of TRAIP by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nonstructural protein 1α promotes viral proliferation

 Peidian Shi1,  Yanxin Su1, Ruiqiao Li1, Lei Zhang1, LiLin Zhang1, Chen Chen1,  Kay Faaberg2 and  Jinhai Huang1*
  • 1College of Life Sciences, Tianjin Normal University, China
  • 2United States Department of Agriculture, United States

In this study, we show that porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) nonstructural protein 1α (nsp1α) escapes innate immunity and also promotes virus proliferation by modulating nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation and distribution ratio of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor associated factors (TRAF) interacting protein (TRAIP). Mechanistically, PRRSV nsp1α inhibits small ubiquitin-like modifier self-addition (SUMOylation) and K48-linked polyubiquitination of TRAIP. Modulation of the dual modification of TRAIP by PRRSV nsp1α results in over-enrichment of TRAIP in the cytoplasm. Enrichment of nsp1α-induced cytoplasmic TRAIP in turn leads to excessive K48 ubiquitination and degradation of serine/threonine-protein kinase (TBK1), thereby antagonizing TBK1-IRF3-IFN signaling. This study proposes a novel mechanism by which PRRSV utilizes host proteins to regulate innate immunity. Findings from this study provides novel perspective to advance our understanding in the pathogenesis of PRRSV.

Keywords: PRRSV, TRAIP, nsp1α, Sumoylation, IFN, TBK1

Received: 21 Sep 2018; Accepted: 06 Dec 2018.

Edited by:

Anastasia N. Vlasova, The Ohio State University, United States

Reviewed by:

Jianzhong Zhu, Yangzhou University, China
Scott P. Kenney, The Ohio State University, United States  

Copyright: © 2018 Shi, Su, Li, Zhang, Zhang, Chen, Faaberg and Huang. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Prof. Jinhai Huang, College of Life Sciences, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin, China, jinhaih@tju.edu.cn