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Innate Immunity in Aquatic Vertebrates

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Front. Immunol. | doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.00906

Pattern Recognition by Melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (Mda5) in Teleost Fish: A Review

  • 1College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, South Korea
  • 2Moredun Research Institute, United Kingdom

Teleost fish, as with other vertebrates, rely on their innate immune system as a first line of defense against invading pathogens. A very important characteristic of the innate immune response is its ability to recognize conserved molecular structures, such as viral dsRNA and ssRNA. Mda5 is one of the three pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize cytoplasmic viral ligands. Teleost Mda5 is widely conserved among several fish species and possesses the same structural domains as those seen in their mammalian counterparts. Fish Mda5 has been shown to be capable of initiating an inflammatory response both in vitro (in different fish cell lines) and in vivo using synthetic viral analogues or virus. The interferon (IFN) pathway is triggered as a result of Mda5 activation, leading to the expression of type I IFNs, IFN- stimulated genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Although it is known that Mda5 acts as a receptor for virally-produced ligands, it has been shown more recently that it can also initiate an immune response against bacterial challenges. This review discusses recent advances in the characterization of teleost Mda5 and its potential role in antiviral and antibacterial immunity in teleost fish.

Keywords: teleost fish, Innate immune system, Pattern Recognition Receptors, melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5, Interferon pathway

Received: 03 Jan 2019; Accepted: 09 Apr 2019.

Edited by:

Stephanie DeWitte-Orr, Wilfrid Laurier University, Canada

Reviewed by:

Sarah J. Poynter, University of Waterloo, Canada
Ryan Noyce, University of Alberta, Canada  

Copyright: © 2019 Jung, Lazarte and Thompson. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Prof. Tae Sung Jung, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, South Korea, jungts@gmail.com