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Original Research ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Immunol. | doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.01171

Regulation of tolerogenic features on dexamethasone-modulated MPLA-activated dendritic cells by MYC

  • 1Universidad de Chile, Chile
  • 2University of Queensland, Australia

Abstract
The potential of tolerogenic dendritic cells (tolDCs) to shape immune responses and restore tolerance has turn them into a promising therapeutic tool for cellular therapies directed towards immune regulation in autoimmunity. Although the cellular mechanisms by which these cells can exert their regulatory function are well known, the mechanisms driving their differentiation and function are still poorly known, and the variety of stimuli and protocols applied to differentiate DCs towards a tolerogenic phenotype makes it even more complex to underpin the molecular features involved in their function. Through transcriptional profiling analysis of monocyte-derived tolDCs modulated with dexamethasone (Dex) and activated with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA), known as DM-DCs, we were able to identify MYC as one of the transcriptional regulators of several genes differentially expressed on DM-DCs compared to MPLA-matured DCs (M-DCs) and untreated/immature DCs (DCs) as revealed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) upstream regulators evaluation. Additionally, MYC was also amidst the most upregulated genes in DM-DCs, finding that was confirmed at a transcriptional as well as at a protein level. Blockade of transactivation of MYC target genes led to the downregulation of tolerance-related markers IDO1 and JAG1. MYC blockade also led to downregulation of PLZF and STAT3, transcription factors associated with immune regulation and inhibition of DC maturation, further supporting a role of MYC as an upstream regulator contributing to the regulatory phenotype of DM-DCs. On the other hand, we had previously shown that fatty acid oxidation, oxidative metabolism and zinc homeostasis are amongst the main biological functions represented in DM-DCs, and here we show that DM-DCs exhibit higher intracellular expression of ROS and Zinc compared to mature M-DCs and DCs. Taken together, these findings suggest that the regulatory profile of DM-DCs is partly shaped by the effect of the transcriptional regulation of tolerance-inducing genes by MYC and the modulation of oxidative metabolic processes and signaling mediators such as Zinc and ROS.

Keywords: tolerogenic dendritic cells (tDC), tolerance mechanism, DC transcription factors, Zinc metabollism in DC, Dexamethasone-modulated and MPLA-activated DC, ROS metabollism in DC

Received: 30 Oct 2018; Accepted: 08 May 2019.

Edited by:

Djordje Miljkovic, Institute for Biological Research Sinisa Stankovic, University of Belgrade, Serbia

Reviewed by:

Giada Mondanelli, University of Perugia, Italy
Miodrag J. Colic, Institute for the Application of Nuclear Energy (INEP), Serbia  

Copyright: © 2019 García-González, Maggi, Schinnerling, Soto, Neira, Sepulveda-Gutierrez, Mehdi, Nel, Pesce, Aravena, Molina, Catalán, Thomas, Verdugo and Aguillon. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Prof. Juan C. Aguillon, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile, jaguillo@med.uchile.cl