Dynamic metabolic state of tissue resident CD8 T cells
- 1Institute of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Lisbon, Portugal
- 2Lymphocyte signalling and development laboratory, Institute of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Lisbon, Portugal
In the past years, there have been significant advances in the understanding of how environmental conditions alone or in conjunction with pathogen invasion affect the metabolism of T cells, thereby influencing their activation, differentiation and longevity. Detailed insights of the interlinked processes of activation and metabolism can contribute to major advances in immunotherapies. Naive and memory T cells circulate the body. In a quiescent state with low metabolic demands, they predominantly use oxidative phosphorylation for their energy needs. Recognition of cognate antigen combined with costimulatory signals results in a proliferative burst and effector molecule production, requiring rapid release of energy, achieved via dynamically reprogramming of metabolic pathways. After activation, most T cells succumb to activation induced cell death, but few differentiate into memory T cells. Of note, some memory T cells permanently occupy tissues without circulating. These, tissue resident T cells are predominantly CD8 T cells, maintained in a metabolic state distinct from naïve and circulating memory CD8 T cells with elements similar to effector CD8 T cells but without undergoing proliferative burst or secreting immune mediators. They continually interact with tissue cells as part of an immune surveillance network, are well adapted to the tissues they have made their home and where they may encounter different metabolic environments. In this review, we will discuss recent insights in metabolic characteristics of CD8 T cell biology, with emphasis on tissue resident CD8 T cells at the epithelial barriers.
Keywords: T cells, Metabolism, tissue resident cells, CD8 T cell, Intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL)
Received: 13 Apr 2019;
Accepted: 04 Jul 2019.
Edited by:Marianne Boes, Utrecht University, Netherlands
Reviewed by:Femke Van Wijk, University Medical Center Utrecht, Netherlands
Jon D. Piganelli, University of Pittsburgh, United States
Copyright: © 2019 Konjar and Veldhoen. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Mx. Spela Konjar, Institute of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, 1649-028, Lisbon, Portugal, firstname.lastname@example.org
Dr. Marc Veldhoen, Institute of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Lisbon, Lymphocyte signalling and development laboratory, Lisbon, CB22 3AT, Portugal, email@example.com