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Mini Review ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Immunol. | doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.01995

Parasite-produced MIF cytokine: role in immune evasion, invasion, and pathogenesis

  • 1University of Virginia, United States
  • 2Yale University, United States
  • 3Tshwane University of Technology, South Africa

Protozoan parasites represent a major threat to health and contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in developing countries. This is further compounded by lack of effective vaccines, drug resistance and toxicity associated with current therapies. Multiple protozoans, including Plasmodium, Entamoeba, Toxoplasma, and Leishmania produce homologs of the cytokine MIF. These parasite MIF homologs are capable of altering the host immune response during infection, and play a role in immune evasion, invasion and pathogenesis. This minireview outlines well-established and emerging literature on the role of parasite MIF homologs in disease, and their potential as targets for therapeutic and preventive interventions.

Keywords: MIF, protozoan, parasite, Parasite - Host interactions, Immune Evasion, immunopathology, immunotherapeutic, cytokine

Received: 27 May 2019; Accepted: 07 Aug 2019.

Edited by:

JUDE E. UZONNA, University of Manitoba, Canada

Reviewed by:

Theo Araújo-Santos, Federal University of Western Bahia, Brazil
Nahed Ismail, University of Illinois at Chicago, United States
Michael M. Opata, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, United States  

Copyright: © 2019 Moonah, Ghosh, Jiang, Farr and Ngobeni. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Shannon Moonah, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, United States,