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Original Research ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Immunol. | doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.02018

High activation of γδ T cells and the γδ2pos T-cell subset is associated with tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome

 Pean Polidy1*,  Janin Nouhin2, Meng Ratana1,  Yoann Madec3, Laurence Borand4,  Olivier Marcy5,  Didier Laureillard6, Marcelo Fernandez7, Françoise Barré-Sionussi3, 8,  Laurence Weiss9, 10 and  Daniel Scott-Algara11
  • 1Immunology Unit, Pasteur Institute of Cambodia, Cambodia
  • 2Virology Unit, Pasteur Institute of Cambodia, Cambodia
  • 3Institut Pasteur, France
  • 4Epidemiology and Public Health Unit, Pasteur Institute of Cambodia, Cambodia
  • 5INSERM U1219 Bordeaux Population Health Centre Recherche (BPH), France
  • 6Service de Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nîmes, France
  • 7Doctors Without Borders (Myanmar), Myanmar
  • 8Institut Pasteur, France
  • 9Service d'Immunologie clinique, Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou (HEGP), France
  • 10Université Paris Descartes, France
  • 11Unité de Biologie Cellulaire des Lymphocytes, Institut Pasteur, France

Background: HIV-1 and M. tuberculosis co-infected patients are commonly at risk of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) when initiating antiretroviral treatment (ART). Evidence indicates that innate immunity plays a role in TB-IRIS. Here, we evaluated the phenotype of γδ T cells and invariant NKT cells in tuberculosis-associated IRIS.
Methods: Forty-eight HIV+/TB+ patients (21 IRIS) and three control groups: HIV-/TB- (HD, n=11), HIV+/TB- (n=26), and HIV-/TB+ (n=22) were studied. Samples were taken at ART initiation (week 2 of anti-tuberculosis treatment) and at the diagnosis of IRIS for HIV+/TB+; before ART for HIV+/TB-, and at week 2 of anti-tuberculosis treatment for HIV-/TB+ patients. The γδ T cells and iNKT cells were analyzed by flow cytometry.
Results: Before ART, IRIS and non-IRIS patients showed a similar proportion of γδ T and iNKT cells. HLA-DR on γδ T cells and γδ2pos T cells was significantly higher in IRIS than non-IRIS patients and controls (p<0.0001). NKG2D expression was lower in HIV+/TB+ patients than controls. CD158a expression on γδ T cells was higher in IRIS than non-IRIS (p=0.02), HIV+/TB-, and HIV-/TB- patients.
Conclusion: The higher activation of γδpos T cells and the γδ2pos T cell subset suggests that γδpos T cells may play a role in the pathogenesis of IRIS.

Keywords: HIV, Tuberculosis, Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome, Gamma Delta T cells, Invariant NKT cells

Received: 03 May 2019; Accepted: 09 Aug 2019.

Copyright: © 2019 Polidy, Nouhin, Ratana, Madec, Borand, Marcy, Laureillard, Fernandez, Barré-Sionussi, Weiss and Scott-Algara. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Pean Polidy, Immunology Unit, Pasteur Institute of Cambodia, Phnom Penh, Cambodia,