Immunopathology of recurrent vulvovaginal infections: New aspects and research directions
- 1Guru Nanak Dev University, India
- 2Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, India
- 3Department of Human Genetics, Guru Nanak Dev University, India
Recurrent vulvovaginal infections (RVVI), a devastating group of mucosal infection, are severely affecting women’s quality of life. Our understanding of the vaginal defense mechanisms have broadened recently with studies uncovering the inflammatory nature of bacterial vaginosis, inflammatory responses against novel virulence factors, innate Type 17 cells/IL-17 axis, neutrophils mediated killing of pathogens by a novel mechanism and oxidative stress during vaginal infections. However, the pathogens have fine mechanisms to subvert or manipulate the host immune responses, hijack them and use them for their own advantage. The odds of hijacking increases, due to impaired immune responses, the net magnitude of which is the result of numerous genetic variations, present in multiple host genes, detailed in this review. Thus by underlining the role of the host immune responses in disease etiology, modern research has clarified a major hypothesis shift in the pathophilosophy of RVVI. This knowledge can further be used to develop efficient immune-based diagnosis and treatment strategies for this enigmatic disease conditions. As for instance, plasma-derived MBL replacement, adoptive T-cell and antibody-based therapies have been reported to be safe and efficacious in infectious diseases. Therefore, these emerging immune-therapies could possibly be the future therapeutic options for RVVI.
Keywords: Adaptive Immunity, innate immunity, Pattern Recognition Receptors, infectious diseases, evasion, Oxidative Stress, Single nucleotide polymorphisms
Received: 05 Mar 2019;
Accepted: 12 Aug 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Kalia, Singh and Kaur. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Dr. Namarta Kalia, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, India, email@example.com