HBV-induced immune imbalance in the development of HCC
- 1School of Life Science, University of Science and Technology of China, China
- 2University of Science and Technology of China, China
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the high-risk factors for human HCC. Despite the integration of virus DNA and the oncoprotein HBx, chronic necroinflammation and hepatocellular regeneration account for hepatocarcinogenesis. As a noncytopathic virus, HBV is extensively recognized to mediate chronic liver damage through abnormal immune attack. However, the mechanisms driving HBV infection to HCC are poorly understood. During chronic HBV infection in humans, the adaptive immunity changes from immune tolerance to progressive immune activation, inactivation, reactivation and exhaustion, all of which may be the immune pathogenic factors for the development of HCC. Recently, the immunopathogenic mechanisms were described in mouse HBV-induced HCC models, which is absolutely dependent on the presence of HBV-specific T cell response and NK cell-derived IFN-γ, findings which are consistent with the observations from CHB and HCC patients. In this review, we summarize recent research progression on the HBV-specific CD8+T cells, and also CD4+T cells, B cells and non-specific immune cells and molecules underlying chronic HBV infection and eventual HCC development to demonstrate the pathogenesis of HBV-induced immune imbalance. Based on the progression, we discussed the potential of immune-based therapies and their challenges in the treatment of HBV-related HCC, including the checkpoint inhibition, genetically modified T cell transfer, therapeutic vaccines and metabolic modulation.
Keywords: HBV, immune dysfunction, HCC, Adaptive Immunity, innate immunity
Received: 13 Jun 2019;
Accepted: 13 Aug 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Chen and Tian. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: PhD. Yongyan Chen, School of Life Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China, email@example.com