Hypothesis and Theory ARTICLE
MicroRNAs: Fine tuners of monocyte heterogeneity
- 1INSERM U1183 Cellules Souches, Plasticité Cellulaire, Médecine Régénératrice Et Immunothérapies, France
Small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to play critical roles in many biological processes by controlling gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. They appear to fine-tune the immune response by targeting key regulatory molecules, and their abnormal expression is associated with immune-mediated inflammatory disorders. Monocytes actively contribute to tissue homeostasis by triggering acute inflammatory reactions as well as the resolution of inflammation and tissue regeneration, in case of injury or pathogen invasion. Their contribution to tissue homeostasis can have many aspects because they are able to differentiate into different cell types including macrophages, dendritic cells and osteoclasts, which fulfill functions as different as bone remodeling and immune response. Monocytes consist of different subsets with subset-specific expression of miRNAs linked to distinct biological processes dedicated to specific roles. Therefore, understanding the role of miRNAs in the context of monocyte heterogeneity may provide clues as to which subset gives rise to which cell type in tissues. In addition, because monocytes are involved in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation, associated with loss of tissue homeostasis and function, identifying subset-specific miRNAs might help in developing therapeutic strategies that target one subset while sparing the others. Here, we give an overview of the state-of-the-art research regarding miRNAs that are differentially expressed between monocyte subsets and how they influence monocyte functional heterogeneity in health and disease, with descriptions of specific miRNAs. We also revisit the existing miRNome data to propose a canonical signature for each subset.
Keywords: Monocytes, microRNA, CD14, CD16, Ly6C monocyte low, Ly6C hi
Received: 25 Apr 2019;
Accepted: 27 Aug 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Duroux-Richard, Robin, Peillex and APPARAILLY. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Prof. Florence APPARAILLY, INSERM U1183 Cellules Souches, Plasticité Cellulaire, Médecine Régénératrice Et Immunothérapies, Montpellier, 34295, Languedoc-Roussillon, France, email@example.com