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Front. Immunol. | doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.02303

In situ vaccination by direct dendritic cell inoculation: the coming of age of an old idea?

 Luciano Castiello1*,  Eleonora Aricò1, Giuseppina D'Agostino1, Laura Santodonato1 and Filippo Belardelli2
  • 1FaBioCell, Core Facilities, National Institute of Health (ISS), Italy
  • 2Institute of Traslational Pharmacology (CNR), Italy

For more than twenty-five years dendritic cell (DC) based vaccination has flashily hold promises to represent a therapeutic approach for cancer treatment. While the vast majority of studies has focused on the use of antigen loaded DC, the intratumoral delivery of unloaded DC aiming at in situ vaccination has gained much less attention. Such approach grounds on the ability of inoculated DC to internalize and process antigens directly released by tumor (usually in combination with cell-death-inducing agents) to activate broad patient-specific antitumor T cell response. In this review, we highlight the recent studies in both solid and hematological tumors showing promising clinical results and discuss main pitfalls and advantages of this approach for endogenous cancer vaccination. Lastly, we discuss how in situ vaccination by DC inoculation may fit with current immunotherapy approaches to expand and prolong patient response.

Keywords: dendritic cell (DC), In situ vaccination, cancer immunotherapy, Checkpoint inhibitor combination therapy, Intratumor administration, Monocyte derived dendritic cells (MoDC)

Received: 04 Jul 2019; Accepted: 11 Sep 2019.

Copyright: © 2019 Castiello, Aricò, D'Agostino, Santodonato and Belardelli. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Mx. Luciano Castiello, National Institute of Health (ISS), FaBioCell, Core Facilities, Rome, Italy,