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Original Research ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Immunol. | doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.02621

Characterization of the dynamic behavior of neutrophils following influenza vaccination

 Diego Ulisse Pizzagalli1, 2, 3,  Irene Latino1,  Alain Pulfer1,  Miguel Palomino-Segura1, Tommaso Virgilio1, Yagmur Farsakoglu4, Rolf Krause2, 3 and  Santiago F. Gonzalez1*
  • 1Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB), Switzerland
  • 2Institute of Computational Science, University of Italian Switzerland, Switzerland
  • 3Center for Computational Medicine in Cardiology, University of Italian Switzerland, Switzerland
  • 4Salk Institute for Biological Studies, United States

Neutrophils are amongst the first cells to respond to inflammation and infection. Although they play a key role in limiting the dissemination of pathogens, the study of their dynamic behavior in immune organs remains elusive. In this work, we proposed a novel image-based systems biology approach to characterize in vivo the activities of neutrophils in the mouse popliteal lymph node (PLN) after influenza vaccination with UV-inactivated virus. We described a prominent and rapid recruitment of neutrophils to the LN following vaccination, which is dependent on the secretion of the chemokine CXCL1 and the alarmin molecule IL-1α. In addition, we observed that the initial recruitment occurred mainly via high endothelial venules located in the paracortical and interfollicular regions of the LN. The analysis of the spatial-temporal patterns of neutrophil migration demonstrated that, in the initial stage, the majority of neutrophils display a patrolling behavior, followed by the formation of swarms in the subcapsular sinus of the LN, which are associated with macrophages in this compartment. Finally, we observed using multiple imaging techniques, that neutrophils phagocytize and transport influenza virus particles. These processes might have important implications in the capacity of these cells to present viral antigens.

Keywords: intravital 2-photon, innate immunity, Vaccination, Neutrophils, Data Mining, activity recognition, Cell activities

Received: 06 Sep 2019; Accepted: 22 Oct 2019.

Copyright: © 2019 Pizzagalli, Latino, Pulfer, Palomino-Segura, Virgilio, Farsakoglu, Krause and F. Gonzalez. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Santiago F. Gonzalez, Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB), Bellinzona, 6500, Switzerland,