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Front. Microbiol. | doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.00864

Insight into the variation of bacterial structure in atrazine contaminated soil regulating by potential phytoremediator: Pennisetum americanum (L.) K. Schum

Bo Cao1, Ying Zhang1, Zi Wang1, Mengyuan Li1, Feng Yang1, Duo Jiang1 and  Zhao Jiang1*
  • 1Northeast Agricultural University, China

Although plants of the genus Pennisetum can accelerate the removal of atrazine from its rhizosphere, the roles played by this plant in adjusting the soil environment and soil microorganism properties that might contribute to pollutant removal are incompletely understood. We selected Pennisetum americanum (L.) K. Schum (P. americanum) as the test plant and investigated the interaction between P. americanum and atrazine-contaminated soil, focusing on the adjustment of the soil biochemical properties as well as bacterial functional and community diversity in the rhizosphere using Biolog EcoPlates and high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The results demonstrate that the rhizosphere soil of P. americanum exhibited higher catalase activity, urease activity and water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) content, as well as a suitable pH for microorganisms after a 28-day incubation. The bacterial functional diversity indices (Shannon and McIntosh) for rhizosphere soil were 3.17±0.04 and 6.43±0.86 respectively, while these indices for non-rhizosphere soil were 2.95±0.06 and 3.98±0.27. Thus, bacteria in the P. americanum rhizosphere exhibited better carbon substrate utilization than non-rhizosphere bacteria. Though atrazine decreased the richness of the soil bacterial community, rhizosphere soil had higher bacterial community traits. For example, the Shannon diversity indices for rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil were 5.821 and 5.670 respectively. Meanwhile, some bacteria, such as those of the genera Paenibacillus, Rhizobium, Sphingobium and Mycoplana, which facilitate soil nutrient cycling or organic pollutants degradation, were only found in rhizosphere soil after a 28-day remediation. Moreover, redundancy analysis suggests that the soil biochemical properties that were adjusted by the test plant exhibited correlations with the bacterial community composition and functional diversity. These results suggest that the soil environment and bacterial properties could be adjusted by P. americanum during phytoremediation of atrazine contaminated soil.

Keywords: rhizosphere, Atrazine, Pennisetum, Phytoremediation, Microbial succession

Received: 26 Jan 2018; Accepted: 13 Apr 2018.

Edited by:

Piotr Rozpądek, Jagiellonian University, Poland

Reviewed by:

Mariusz Cycoń, Medical University of Silesia, Poland
M Oves, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia  

Copyright: © 2018 Cao, Zhang, Wang, Li, Yang, Jiang and Jiang. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Zhao Jiang, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China, jiangzhao_0828@163.com