Extracellular vesicles in Chagas disease: a new passenger for an old disease.
- 1Parasitology, Universidad de Granada, Spain
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small lipid vesicles released by prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells containing nucleic acids, proteins, and small metabolites essential for cellular communication. Depending on the targeted cell, EVs can act either locally or in distant tissues in a paracrine or endocrine cell signaling manner. Released EVs from virus-infected cells, bacteria, fungi or parasites have been demonstrated to perform a pivotal role in a myriad of biochemical changes occurring in the host and pathogen, including the modulation the immune system. In the past few years, the biology of Trypanosoma cruzi EVs, as well as their role in innate immunity evasion, has been started to be unveiled. This review article will present findings on and provide a coherent understanding of the currently known mechanisms of action of T. cruzi-EVs and hypothesize the implication of these parasite components during the acute and chronic phases of Chagas disease.
Keywords: Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma brucei, Kinetoplastids, exosome, Ectosome, microvesicle, pathogen., Trypanosoma cruzi
Received: 22 Mar 2018;
Accepted: 16 May 2018.
Edited by:Celio G. Freire-de-Lima, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Reviewed by:Pamela Cribb, CONICET Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Rosario (IBR), Argentina
Eugenio D. Hottz, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Brazil
Carolina V. Poncini, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Argentina
Copyright: © 2018 De Pablos Torró and Osuna Carrillo de Albornoz. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Prof. Luis M. De Pablos Torró, Universidad de Granada, Parasitology, Granada, Spain, firstname.lastname@example.org