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Front. Microbiol. | doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.01631

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation is Associated with Reduced Morbidity and Mortality in Porcine Circovirus Associated Disease

 Megan C. Niederwerder1*, Laura A. Constance1,  Raymond R. Rowland1,  Waseem Abbas2, Samodha C. Fernando2, Megan L. Potter3, Maureen A. Sheahan1,  Thomas E. Burkey2, Richard A. Hesse1 and Ada G. Cino-Ozuna1
  • 1Kansas State University, United States
  • 2University of Nebraska-Lincoln, United States
  • 3Abilene Animal Hospital, United States

Porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD) is a term used to describe the multi-factorial disease syndromes caused by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2), which can be reproduced in an experimental setting through the co-infection of pigs with PCV-2 and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The resulting PCVAD-affected pigs represent a subpopulation within the co-infected group. In co-infection studies, the presence of increased microbiome diversity is linked to a reduction in clinical signs. In this study, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was investigated as a means to prevent PCVAD in pigs co-infected with PRRSV and PCV-2d. The sources of the FMT material were high-parity sows with a documented history of high health status and robust litter characteristics. The analysis of the donated FMT material showed the absence of common pathogens along with the presence of diverse microbial phyla and families. One group of pigs (n = 10) was administered the FMT while a control group (n = 10) was administered a sterile mock-transplant. Over the 42-day post-infection period, the FMT group showed fewer PCVAD-affected pigs, as evidenced by a significant reduction in morbidity and mortality in transplanted pigs, along with increased antibody levels. Overall, this study provides evidence that FMT decreases the severity of clinical signs following co-infection with PRRSV and PCV-2 by reducing the prevalence of PCVAD.

Keywords: microbiome, Swine, Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Porcine circovirus type 2, fecal microbiota transplantation, Porcine circovirus associated disease

Received: 02 Apr 2018; Accepted: 29 Jun 2018.

Edited by:

Benjamin P. Willing, University of Alberta, Canada

Reviewed by:

Renee M. Petri, Veterinärmedizinische Universität Wien, Austria
Joaquim Segalés, Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, Spain  

Copyright: © 2018 Niederwerder, Constance, Rowland, Abbas, Fernando, Potter, Sheahan, Burkey, Hesse and Cino-Ozuna. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: DVM, PhD. Megan C. Niederwerder, Kansas State University, Manhattan, United States, mniederwerder@vet.ksu.edu