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Human Microbiome: Symbiosis to Pathogenesis

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Front. Microbiol. | doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.02247

The gut microbiota in the pathogenesis and therapeutics of inflammatory bowel disease

  • 1The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

In the twenty first century, the changing epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) globally with increasing disease incidence across many countries relates to the altered gut microbiota, due to a combinatorial effect of environmental factors, human immune responses and genetics. IBD is a gastrointestinal disease associated with dysbiosis, characterized by changes in gut microbial communities that include an expansion of facultative anaerobic bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Advances in high-throughput sequencing enable us to entangle the gut microbiota in human health and IBD beyond the bacterial microbiota, including mycobiota, virobiota and helminthes. Caudovirales (viruses) and Basidiomycota, Ascomycota and C.albicans (fungi) are revealed to be increased in IBD. The deconvolution of the gut microbiota in IBD lays the basis for unveiling the roles of these various gut microbiota components in IBD pathogenesis and being conductive to instructing on future IBD diagnosis and therapeutics. Here we comprehensively elucidate the alterations in the gut microbiota in IBD, discuss the effect of diets in the gut microbiota in relation to IBD, and illustrate the potential of manipulation of gut microbiota for IBD therapeutics. The therapeutic strategy of antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation will benefit the effective application of precision microbiome manipulation in IBD.

Keywords: Gut Microbiota, Bacteria, virobiota, Mycobiota, Helminths, Diet, Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, fecal microbiota transplantation

Received: 20 Feb 2018; Accepted: 03 Sep 2018.

Edited by:

Learn-Han Lee, Novel Bacteria and Drug Discovery Research Group (NBDD), Monash University Malaysia, Malaysia

Reviewed by:

Maryam Dadar, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Iran
Hui-min Neoh, UKM Medical Molecular Biology Institute (UMBI), Malaysia
Wei Li Thong, University of Manchester, United Kingdom  

Copyright: © 2018 Ng and Zuo. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Prof. Siew C. Ng, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, siewchienng@cuhk.edu.hk