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Front. Microbiol. | doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.02584

The cheese matrix modulates the immunomodulatory properties of Propionibacterium freudenreichii CIRM-BIA 129 in healthy piglets

  • 1Pôle agronomique Ouest (PAO), France
  • 2INRA UMR1253 Science & technologie du lait & de l'œuf, France
  • 3INSERM U1241 Nutrition Métabolismes et Cancer, France
  • 4Normandie Université, France
  • 5Bioprox, France

Propionibacterium freudenreichii is a beneficial bacterium, used as a cheese starter, which presents several probiotic properties. It is established that its probiotic functionalities are strain-dependent, but whether they also depend on the delivery vehicle. In this study, we explored in healthy piglets how the cheese matrix affects the immunomodulatory properties of P. freudenreichii. During two weeks, three groups of weaned piglets consumed, respectively, P. freudenreichii as a liquid culture (PF-culture), P. freudenreichii under the form of a cheese (PF-cheese), or a control sterile cheese matrix (Cheese-matrix). The in vivo metabolic activity of P. freudenreichii was assessed by determining short chain fatty acids (SCFA) concentration and bifidobacteria population in faeces. Whatever the delivery vehicle, P. freudenreichii was metabolically active in piglets’ colon and enhanced both bifidobacteria and SCFA. P. freudenreichii consumption decreased the secretion of TNFα and of IL-10 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). It did not alter IL-10, IFNγ, IL-17 and TNFα secretion in mesenteric lymph node immune cells (MLNC). PF-cheese enhanced significantly Treg phenotype while PF-culture decreased significantly Th17 phenotype in PBMC and MLNC. Remarkably, only PF-cheese induced an increase of Th2 phenotype in PBMC and MLNC. Ex vivo stimulation of PBMC and MLNC by lipopolysaccharides and concanavalin A emphasized the difference in the immunomodulatory responses between PF-culture and PF-cheese group. This study shows the importance to consider the delivery vehicle for probiotic administration. It confirms the anti-inflammatory potential of P. freudenreichii. It opens new perspectives for the use propionibacteria-fermented products as preventive agents for inflammatory bowel diseases and intestinal infectious diseases.

Keywords: Probiotics, P. Freudenreichii, delivery vehicle, cheese matrix, , Immunomodulation, T lymphocytes phenotype

Received: 03 Aug 2018; Accepted: 10 Oct 2018.

Edited by:

Baltasar Mayo, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Spain

Reviewed by:

Giorgio Giraffa, Centro di Zootecnia e Acquacoltura (CREA-ZA), Italy
Cristian Botta, Università degli Studi di Torino, Italy  

Copyright: © 2018 Rabah, Ferret-Bernard, Huang, Le Normand, Cousin, Gaucher, Jeantet, Boudry and JAN. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Gwénaël JAN, INRA UMR1253 Science & technologie du lait & de l'œuf, Rennes, France,