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Front. Microbiol. | doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.02784

The influence of viable cells and cell-free extracts of Lactobacillus casei on volatile compounds and polyphenolic profile of elderberry juice

  • 1Dipartimento di Scienze degli Alimenti e del Farmaco, Università degli Studi di Parma, Italy
  • 2Università degli Studi di Parma, Italy
  • 3Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche Veterinarie, Università degli studi di Parma, Italy

In this study four strains of Lactobacillus casei, as viable cells or cell-free extracts (CFE), were added to elderberry juice in order to evaluate their effect on phenolic and aromatic profile. Two of them were able to grow in juice while the others showed zero-growth. The same strains were lysed and added as extracts in elderberry juice. Multivariate statistical analysis show a separation among samples containing growing cells, non-growing cells, cell-free extracts, highlighting the particularities of specific strains. Juices added with CFE presented the highest amount of esters. The strains showing growth phenotype, cause an increase of phenyllactic acids. The highest concentration of volatile compounds was observed in strains showing zero-growth, particularly of alcohols, terpenes and norisoprenoids which exhibit typical elderberry notes. Moreover, a significant increase in anthocyanin content was observed in these samples, suggesting the possible use of Lactobacillus for increasing specific molecules, even for non-multiplying bacterial cell.

Keywords: Elderberry juice, Lactobacillus casei, volatile compounds, Polyphenols, microbial growth, Cell-free extracts

Received: 24 Jul 2018; Accepted: 30 Oct 2018.

Edited by:

Teresa Zotta, Italian National Research Council, Italy

Reviewed by:

Chiara Montanari, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Italy
Vittorio Capozzi, University of Foggia, Italy  

Copyright: © 2018 Ricci, Levante, Cirlini, Calani, Bernini, Del Rio, Galaverna, Neviani and Lazzi. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: PhD. Valentina Bernini, Università degli Studi di Parma, Parma, Italy, valentina.bernini@unipr.it