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Front. Microbiol. | doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.02791

The XRE-DUF397 protein pair, Scr1 and Scr2, acts as a strong positive regulator of antibiotic production in Streptomyces.

  • 1Instituto de Biología Funcional y Genómica (IBFG), Spain
  • 2Fundación MEDINA, Spain

The XRE (Xenobiotic Response Element) transcription factors belong to a regulator family frequently found in Streptomyces that are often followed by small proteins with a DUF397 domain. In fact, the pair XRE-DUF397 has been proposed to comprise toxin-antitoxin (TA) type II systems. In this work, we demonstrate that one of these putative TA-systems, encoded by the genes SCO4441 and SCO4442 of S. coelicolor, and denominated Scr1/Scr2 (which stands for S. coelicolor regulator), does not behave as a toxin-antitoxin system under the conditions used as was originally expected. Instead the pair Scr1/Scr2 acts as a strong positive regulator of endogenous antibiotic production in S. coelicolor. The analysis of the 19 Streptomyces strains tested determined that overexpression of the pair Scr1/Scr2 drastically induces the production of antibiotics not only in S. coelicolor, but also in S. lividans, S. peucetius, S. steffisburgensis and Streptomyces sp. CA-240608. Our work also shows that Scr1 needs Scr2 to exert positive regulation on antibiotic production.

Keywords: Streptomyces, Positive regulator, Antibiotic production, Xenobiotic response element, toxin antitoxin system

Received: 14 Sep 2018; Accepted: 30 Oct 2018.

Edited by:

Marie-Joelle VIROLLE, Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), France

Reviewed by:

Sébastien Rigali, University of Liege, Belgium
Angel Manteca, Universidad de Oviedo Mieres, Spain  

Copyright: © 2018 Santamaría, Sevillano Tripero, Martín, Genilloud, GONZALEZ MARTINEZ and Díaz. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence:
Dr. Ramón I. Santamaría, Instituto de Biología Funcional y Genómica (IBFG), Salamanca, Spain,
Dr. Margarita Díaz, Instituto de Biología Funcional y Genómica (IBFG), Salamanca, Spain,