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Front. Microbiol. | doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.03312

Wheat Fermentation with Enterococcus mundtii QAUSD01 and Wickerhamomyces anomalus QAUWA03 Consortia Induces Concurrent Gliadin and Phytic Acid Degradation and Inhibits Gliadin Toxicity in Caco-2 Monolayers

 Hafiz Arbab Sakandar1, 2, Stan Kubow2, Behnam Azadi2,  Umar M. Quraishi3 and  IMRAN Muhammad1*
  • 1Quaid-i-Azam University, Pakistan
  • 2McGill University, Macdonald Campus, Canada
  • 3Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Pakistan

Foods containing high amounts of either phytic acid or gliadin can pose a risk for development of iron deficiency and celiac disease, respectively. Present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of preselected gliadin degrading strains, Enterococcus mundtii QAUSD01 and Wickerhamomyces anomalus QAUWA03, on phytic acid and gliadin degradation in six wheat cultivars (Lasani 2008, Seher 2006, Chakwal 97, Shafaq 2006, Bars 2009, Barani 83). In addition, tight junction proteins, trans-epithelial resistance (TER) and ruffle formation in Caco-2 cells was evaluated relative to S. cerevisie–mediated fermentation and unfermented controls. Phytic acid degradation as demonstrated was observed in all six cultivars fermented with E. mundtii QAUSD01 and W. anomalus QAUWA03 consortia. Among the six cultivars, Shafaq 2006 showed relatively higher degradation of gliadin. Relative to the other tested wheat varieties, Lasani 2006 showed minimal toxic effects on Caco-2 cells in terms of ruffle formation, tight junction proteins and TER values, which can be attributed to extensive degradation of toxic gliadin fragments.

Keywords: yeast, Lactic acid bacteria, Fermentation, Caco-2 monolayer cell, Celiac

Received: 13 Aug 2018; Accepted: 19 Dec 2018.

Edited by:

Giuseppe Spano, University of Foggia, Italy

Reviewed by:

Nauman Khalid, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan
KAMEL ELMECHERFI, Oran University of Science and Technology - Mohamed Boudiaf, Algeria  

Copyright: © 2018 Sakandar, Kubow, Azadi, Quraishi and Muhammad. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. IMRAN Muhammad, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, 45320, Islamabad CT, Pakistan,