The Microbiome and Irritable Bowel Syndrome – A Review on the Pathophysiology, Current Research and Future Therapy
- 1School of Biosciences, Taylor's University, Malaysia
- 2Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Malaysia
- 3School of Medicine, Taylor's University, Malaysia
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disorder which affects a large proportion of the population globally. The precise etiology of IBS is still unknown, although consensus understanding proposes IBS to be of multifactorial origin with yet undefined subtypes. Genetic and epigenetic factors, stress-related nervous and endocrine systems, immune dysregulation and the brain-gut axis seem to be contributing factors that predispose individuals to IBS. In addition to food hypersensitivity, toxins and adverse life events, chronic infections and imbalance in the gut microbiota have been suggested to trigger IBS symptoms in tandem with the predisposing factors. This review will summarize the pathophysiology of IBS and the gut microbiome in relation to IBS. Current methodologies for microbiome studies in IBS such as genome sequencing, metagenomics, culturomics and animal models will be discussed. The myriad of therapy options such as immunoglobulins (immune-based therapy), probiotics and prebiotics, dietary modifications including FODMAP restriction diet and gluten-free diet, as well as fecal transplantation will be reviewed. Finally this review will highlight future directions in IBS therapy research including identification of new molecular targets, application of 3-D gut model, gut-on-a-chip and personalized therapy.
Keywords: Irritable bowel syndrome ( IBS), microbiome, Microbiota dysbiosis, fecal transplant, IBS animal model
Received: 13 Sep 2018;
Accepted: 06 May 2019.
Edited by:Vishal Singh, University of Toledo, United States
Reviewed by:Ruggiero Francavilla, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Italy
Konstantinos Papadimitriou, Agricultural University of Athens, Greece
Copyright: © 2019 Chong, Chin, Looi, Wong, Madhavan and Yong. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Prof. Pei P. Chong, School of Biosciences, Taylor's University, Subang Jaya, 47500, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia, Peipei.Chong@taylors.edu.my
Dr. Voon Chen Yong, School of Biosciences, Taylor's University, Subang Jaya, 47500, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia, PhelimVoonChen.Yong@taylors.edu.my