Applications of marine-derived microorganisms and their enzymes in biocatalysis and biotransformation, the underexplored potentials
- 1Instituto de Química de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo São Carlos, Brazil
The biodiversity has been explored in the search for novel enzymes, including forests, savannas, tundras, deserts and finally the sea. Marine microorganisms and their enzymes are capable of being active in high-salt concentration, large range of temperature and, high incidence of light and pressure, constituting an important source of unique biocatalysts. This review presents studies employing whole cells processes of marine bacteria and fungi aiming new catalysts for different reactions in organic synthesis, such as reduction, oxidation, hydroxylation, hydrolysis, elimination and conjugation. Genomics and protein engineering studies were also approached, and reactions employing isolated enzymes from different classes (oxidoreductases, hydrolases, lyases and ligases) were described and summarized. Future biotechnological studies and process development should focus on molecular biology for the obtention of enzymes with interesting and fascinating properties, as the biocatalyst obtained from the exploration of the microorganisms from the marine environment. This review aims the literature about the use of marine-derived bacteria, fungi and their enzymes for biocatalytic reactions of organic compounds. Promoting a discussion about the possibilities of these microorganisms in the synthesis of different compounds.
Keywords: Marine enzymes, marine fungi, marine bacteria, Biodegradation, whole-cell, Reduction, Hydrolysis, Hydroxylation
Received: 01 Feb 2019;
Accepted: 11 Jun 2019.
Edited by:Shaohua Chen, South China Agricultural University, China
Reviewed by:Wensheng Lan, Shenzhen Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, China
Giovanna C. Varese, University of Turin, Italy
Copyright: © 2019 Birolli, Lima and Porto. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: PhD. Willian G. Birolli, Universidade de São Paulo São Carlos, Instituto de Química de São Carlos, São Carlos, Brazil, email@example.com