Original Research ARTICLE
Set-up of bacterial cellulose production from the genus Komagataeibacter and its use in a gluten-free bakery product as a case study
- 1Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences, University of Milan, Italy
- 2Independent researcher, Italy
- 3Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences ,, University of Milan, Italy
- 4Department of Chemistry, University of Milan, Italy
- 5Independent researcher, Italy
The use of bacterial cellulose in food systems is still limited due to production costs. Nine clones belonging to Komagataeibacter hansenii, K. nataicola, K. rhaeticus, K. swingsii and K. xylinus species were screened for cellulose productivity in growth tests with five different carbon sources and three nitrogen sources. The water-holding and rehydration capacities of the purified cellulose were determined. The structure of the polymer was investigated through NMR spectroscopy, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and XRD analysis, and observed by SEM. Natural mutants of K. rhaeticus LMG 22126T and K swingsii LMG 22125T showed different productivity. The factors “bacterial isolate” and “nitrogen source” significantly affected the production of cellulose (p < 0.01) rather than the factor “carbon source” (p = 0.15). However, on average, the best conditions for increasing yield were found in medium containing glucose and peptone. Water-holding capacity values ranged from 10.7 to 42.3 (gwater/gcellulose) with significant differences among strains (p <0.01), while the rehydration capacity varied from 4.2 to 9.3 (gwater/gcellulose). A high crystallinity (64-80%) was detected in all samples with Iα fractions corresponding to 67-93%. The ATR-FT-IR spectra and the XRD patterns confirmed the expected structure. Bacterial cellulose made by GVP isolate of K. rhaeticus LMG 22126T, which was the strain with the highest yield, was added to a gluten-free bread formulation. Results obtained from measurements of technological parameters in dough leavening and baking trials were promising for implementation in potential novel foods.
Keywords: Bacterial cellulose, Komagataeibacter (Gluconacetobacter), Komagataeibacter rheticus, Gluten free products, Bread additives
Received: 31 May 2019;
Accepted: 08 Aug 2019.
Edited by:Vittorio Capozzi, University of Foggia, Italy
Reviewed by:Maria Gullo, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy
Erica Pontonio, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Italy
Copyright: © 2019 Vigentini, Fabrizio, Dellacà, Rossi, Azario, Mondin, Benaglia and Foschino. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Prof. Roberto Foschino, University of Milan, Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences, Milan, 20122, Lombardy, Italy, firstname.lastname@example.org