Editorial: Foodborne pathogens: hygiene and safety
- 1Faculty of Bioscience and Technology for Food Agriculture and Environment, University of Teramo, Italy
The foodborne outbreaks occurred in last decades highlight the importance of the development and implementation of preventive measures and programs aiming at ensuring food safety on one hand and constituting a common basis for the hygienic production of food on the other hand. In particular, a farm to fork approach has been applied in all sectors of food production chain in order to improve hygiene and reduce all potential biological hazards. The food supply chain is very complex because of the differences in food composition and processing and this can result in emergence and re-emergence of foodborne pathogens. However, many factors related to an increase in foodborne illness have been reported, such as the change in eating habits and consumer preferences, increased international travels, change in food processing, production and distribution, pathogen adaptation to new environments, acquisition of virulence factors and antimicrobial drug resistance by microorganisms, advances in pathogen detection methods, inadequate sanitation and vector control measures, inadequate public health services, including consumer information (Smith and Fratamico, 2018). This Research Topic titled “Foodborne Pathogens: Hygiene and Safety” focuses on important food safety concerns such as the potential presence of pathogens in food as well as their toxins/metabolites, the resistance to antibiotics or sanitizers and other virulence characteristics. It includes 4 reviews and 44 original research papers. The main foodborne pathogens studied herein are: Campylobacter jejuni, Cronobacter sakazakii, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp. and Staphyloccus aureus, but some other researches deal with Helicobacter pilori, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, mycobacteria and moulds as well. Studies on characterization and genetic typing of foodborne pathogens, detection methods and inactivation of these microorganisms by natural preservatives derived from plant sources, essential oils and biocontrol, and influence of probiotics are also reported.
PREVALENCE AND MONITORING OF PATHOGENS IN FOOD
Foodborne diseases represent one of the most important public health troubles worldwide. The potential of foodborne pathogens to cause illness or even death in consumers highlights the importance of such events and consequent need of their monitoring and prevention. Millions of cases of foodborne illnesses and/or chronic complications are reported in many countries every year (Heredia and García, 2018). Li S. et al. studied the prevalence and characteristics of Non-typhoidal Salmonella isolated from poultry meat (broilers and spent hens) from supermarkets in China. Three serotypes were identified in 40 Salmonella strains and Salmonella Enteritidis resulted as dominant. The antibiotic resistance was tested as well, showing the highest rates to ampicillin for the strains isolated from commercial broilers, and to nalidixic acid for those isolated from spent hence. Thung et al. investigated the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in different beef meat samples from retail markets in Malaysia as well as the virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance. Eight different serovars were identified and Salmonella Agona was the predominant one. All 23 isolates were resistant at least to three antibiotics. Colello et al. determined the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in 764 samples collected from swine farms, slaughterhouses, boning rooms and retail markets. The strains were classified into five serotypes (i.e. Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Kentucky, Salmonella Brandenburg, Salmonella Livingstone, and Salmonella Agona) and showed different resistance to antibiotics.
The microbiological quality (mesophilic aerobic bacteria, total coliforms, yeasts and molds) and safety level (E. coli O157:H7, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria spp., and L. monocytogenes) of organic and conventional vegetables from Malaysia were evaluated. Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes and Listeria spp. were the most representatives, with no trend between organically or conventionally grown vegetables (Kuan et al.). The presence of total and pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains was detected in short mackerel samples collected from different retail markets in Malaysia. The antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were also studied, showing a resistance to penicillin G and ampicillin (Tan et al.).
The genetic diversity as well as the antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation of Cronobacter spp. recovered from spices and cereals were studied by Li Y. et al. Cronobacter sakazakii was the most common species, and 62.5% of 40 Cr. sakazakii strains were non-biofilm producers. Parra-Flores et al. evaluated the presence of Cr. Sakazakii, microbiological levels of aerobic plate count and Enterobacteriaceae in dairy product batches associated with a recent food alert in Chile.
Sevilla et al. investigated the presence of members of the genus Mycobacterium by culture and PCR-based methods in raw dairy and meat products purchased at different supermarkets in Spain. Mycobacterial DNA was detected in 23 out of 257 samples, corresponding to Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other nontuberculous mycobacteria.
Wang W. et al. submitted two papers to this Research Topic, the first one concerned the complete genomic analysis of a Salmonella Typhimurium isolate from ready-to-eat pork samples in China, the second dealt with the prevalence of S. aureus among raw milk from dairy cows with clinical mastitis.
Lipophilic marine biotoxins belonging to okadaic acid, pectenotoxin, yessotoxin and azaspiracid groups were determined in specimens of mussels collected along the coasts of the Central Adriatic Sea (Italy) by LC-MS/MS. The concentrations exceeded the maximum regulatory limits only for 11 out of 400 samples, and some samples showed a multi-toxin mixture contamination (Schirone et al.).
ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE AND VIRULENCE FACTORS
Microbial interactions can show beneficial or detrimental effects that influence the fate of pathogenic species contaminating foods. The study of such interactions can provide a new knowledge about the different activities of the microorganisms from proliferation and metabolism to pathogenicity and virulence (Zilelidou and Skandamis, 2018).
Dairy products can host microorganisms belonging to Enterobacteriaceae family showing multidrug resistance to antibiotics and other virulence factors such as production of biofilm and synthesis of proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes responsible for spoilage. Their presence can be reduced or avoided through good hygiene conditions during processing and manufacturing, as well as storage and distribution (Amorim et al.). Chagnot et al. investigated the adhesion of E. coli O157:H7 to well-defined types of skeletal muscle and demonstrated that such microorganism mainly adhered to the extracellular matrix of muscle cells, with no significant differences among the different constituent myofibres, whereas the influence of post-mortem structural modifications of muscle tissues was substantial.
The adhesion capacity of 40 C. jejuni strains to abiotic surfaces was studied. All the C. jejuni strains were shown to be capable of forming strong biofilms when Mueller Hinton medium was supplemented with chicken juice. However, the use of biocides was effective in controlling viable cells of strains in biofilm (Melo et al.). Oh et al. demonstrated that ferrous and ferric iron stimulated biofilm formation in C. jejuni through oxidative stress. Premarathne et al. determined the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter spp. in the beef food system in Malaysia. Most isolates were identified as C. jejuni, with a high percentage resistant to tetracycline and ampicillin.
The effect of cold stress on the adhesion to abiotic surfaces and biofilm formation of 22 L. monocytogenes strains from different serogroups and origins was studied by Lee et al. Such study demonstrated the increase of the adhesion capacity, whereas the cold-adapted cells remained in planktonic form. Pasquali et al. studied the persistence and physiological adaptation to food-processing environmental stress of L. monocytogenes strains from a rabbit meat processing plant. While some strains showed a resistance to sanitizers, some others were biofilm producers and these specific characteristics could contribute to their high prevalence. The nucleotide diversity of L. monocytogenes strains from human clinical cases − as well as food or food-related environments originating from three different geographical locations (i.e. Australia, Greece and Ireland) − were studied by Poimenidou et al. The authors demonstrated that virulence genes showed different evolutionary pathways affected by the origin and serotype of the specific strain.
Lang et al. demonstrated that drying of milk powder increased the Caco-2 cell invasion capacity of two pathogens, i.e. Salmonella enterica and Cr. sakazakii, probably due to the activation of stress response transcriptional factors, and a subsequent heat treatment did not offset the loss of cultivability that was observed in the experimental design.
Javed et al. described the characteristics, prevalence, survival and transmission, as well as pathogenesis and virulence determinants of Helicobacter pullorum. Such microorganism causes gastroenteritis in poultry, but it is also an emerging zoonotic bacterium associated with enteric infections in humans with colitis, hepatitis and recurrent diarrhea.
DETECTION METHODS APPLICABLE IN FOOD INDUSTRY
A microfluid system combining loop-mediated isothermal amplification with gold nanoparticles for rapid detection of Salmonella spp. in food samples was performed. Such method showed relative sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 100% and could be used in the food industry as a simple, inexpensive and fast analytical approach (Garrido-Maestu et al.). A new standard operating procedure for multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) of Salmonella Dublin was proposed by Vignaud et al. The MLVA scheme was applied to a foodborne outbreak occurred in France in 2012, in order to discriminate between epidemiologically related strains and sporadic case strains. Fong et al. characterized four Salmonella phages isolated from irrigation water, cattle feces, and sediment from irrigation ditches, based on their phenotypic and genotypic determinants, and assessed their infectivity against various Salmonella strains in vitro. Among them, the phage isolate SI1 was the most effective in control of Salmonella Enteritidis in sprouting alfalfa seeds artificially contaminated.
The study of Ogrodzki and Forsythe described the application of three genotyping methods (Multilocus Sequence Typing, MLST, capsular profiling of the K-antigen and colanic acid byosinthesis regions and CRISPR-cas array profiling) to discriminate different species belonging to Cronobacter genus. Chase et al. found a Cr. sakazakii isolate H322 in a batch of powdered infant formula (PIF) and two other isolates showing indistinguishable Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis patterns with H322, during routine testing of these products ready for distribution. Therefore, whole genome sequencing, as well as microarray analysis, was applied to these strains, showing a phylogenetic relation among them. This study confirmed that the pathogen could persist within the PIF manufacturing facility for years.
Wang J. et al. developed a novel approach to predict the growth kinetics of S. aureus on rice cake under different environmental conditions. These probability models could be useful for food safety management and microbiological risk assessment of such pathogen.
Listeria monocytogenes encodes a functional ArgR, a transcriptional regulator with specific functions in arginine metabolism regulation and acid tolerance. Cheng et al. showed that a single ArgR regulator could have opposite regulatory effects on the arginine deiminase pathway in an arginine-independent and dependent manner under neutral and acidic conditions, respectively.
Henri et al. compared different genomic methods, i.e. MLST, Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP), used to cluster L. monocytogenes strains. This study revealed high concordance between MLST and SNP approaches for diagnostic laboratories responsible for outbreak detection and surveillance.
Williams et al. described a rapid flow cytometric method for determining E. coli O157:H7 contamination in raw spinach. This method could be used as a screening tool to detect such microorganism in food. The presence of two distinct loci of heat resistance on a plasmid encoding type 3 fimbriae and 3 bacteriocins, in one out 90 E. coli raw milk cheese strains. Such plasmid was transferable to other E. coli strains including Shiga-toxin-producing strains, posing great concern in food production environments (Boll et al.). Hussain et al. evaluated the contamination with pathogenic and/or multiresistant E. coli among broiler free-range chicken specimens (ceca and meat). The isolates were characterized using both conventional typing and WGS and compared with human E. coli pathotypes. The results showed that the poultry E. coli strains shared closer genetic identity to human E. coli. Zhang B. et al. demonstrated that a specific genetic marker (named fimbrial gene z3276) of Enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7 encoded multifunctional structures with properties contributing to host colonization and bacterial survival in the environment.
The regulatory mechanism of secondary metabolism by comparative transcriptomic in Aspergillus flavus was studied by Yao et al. Such approach allowed the authors to identify known and novel regulators required for aflatoxins biosynthesis.
Zhang S. et al. determined biotypes, serotypes, virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance patterns of K. pneumoniae strains from retail foods in China. The authors reported that some strins from the same geographic area had a closer relationship and they showed high levels of resistance to ampicillin.
Yang et al. utilized a proteomic approach involving anti-acetyl lysine-based enrichment and highly sensitive mass spectrometry to identify the global acetylated proteome and investigate lysine acetylation in Trichinella spiralis.
Zhao et al. described the surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy as testing technology used for the detection of pathogenic bacteria in food. Such method can be considered fast, simple, specific and sensitive.
PROMISING STRATEGIES FOR FOOD PRESERVATION
Preservation technologies are applied to extend the shelf-life, improve the hygienic quality and ensure the safety of food. In food industry bacteriocins or other natural preservatives such as herbal extracts and essential oils are used as alternative to prevent the growth of both pathogenic and spoiling microorganisms (Martínez et al., 2019; Nazari et al., 2019).
Gray et al. described novel biocontrol methods such as bacteriophages, endolysins, bacteriocins and plant derived products (essential oils) for the prevention of biofilm formation by L. monocytogenes in food production facilities. The inhibitory effect of Hedychium spicatum L. essential oil and radiation on production of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone by Fusarium graminearum in maize grains was studied by response surface methodology. The results showed a reduction of fungal growth rate as well as mycotoxin content (Kalagatur et al.).
Bajpai et al. described a significant antibacterial activity of a quinoline compound (jineol) isolated from the insect Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans against two selected foodborne pathogens (i.e. E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus KCTC-1621). Such compound could be used as alternative means of antimicrobial in pharma and food industries.
The study of García and Cabo focused on the optimization of E. coli inactivation by a quaternary ammonium compound based on a mathematical model. The results showed that the optimal disinfectant dose increased exponentially with the initial bacterial concentration.
Different pressure-temperature combinations were applied to investigate the inactivation kinetics of E. coli, Listeria innocua and S. aureus in black tiger shrimp. Staphylococcus aureus was the most baro-resistant species among the three bacteria. Such study could be used to predict non-linear survival curves of other microorganisms in foods (Kaur and Rao).
In their study, Kiran et al. isolated an actinobacterial strain from a marine sponge producing a lipopeptide that was demonstrated to be an effective emulsifier as well as good antioxidant and protective agent against S. aureus. The authors used this lipopeptide as food additive in muffin production with good results in organoleptic qualities of such food.
Kollanoor Johny at al. evaluated the antimicrobial effects of subinhibitory concentrations of two plant-derived compounds (i.e. trans-cinnamaldehyde and eugenol) on different genes of S. enterica serotype Enteritidis phage type 8 associated with virulence, colonization, motility and invasion capability of such pathogen.
Mohanta et al. described the biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles using a cell-free aqueous leaf extract of plant Protium serratum and their antibacterial activity against some foodborne pathogens, i.e. S. aureus, E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The authors suggested the application of such nanoparticles in food packaging materials as well as disinfectant and cleaning agents.
Nair and Kollanoor Johny submitted two papers to the present Research Topic, the first study described the potential of pimenta leaf essential oil in reducing Salmonella Heidelberg attachment on to turkey skin during poultry processing, whereas the second work studied the antimicrobial function of a dairy-originated probiotic strain against multidrug resistant Salmonella Heidelberg in poults, i.e. young turkeys. The cecal colonization, dissemination to internal organs and potential for skeletal muscle deposition of multidrug resistant strains of Salmonella Heidelberg were studied by a challenge experimental design in poults and adult turkey hens. The results showed the highest recovery in the cecum followed by spleen, liver, thigh and breast, and could be used to better control this microorganism at farm level and improve the safety of turkey products (Nair et al.).
The high number of studies collected in this e-book confirms the importance of foodborne pathogens as a global issue and provides a robust and up-to-date scientific advice. It has been highlighted how much important and essential is a rapid detection of foodborne pathogens by sensitive culture independent methods and by new technologies such as WGS or other biomarkers assay analysis. The outbreak investigations play also key roles in the prevention of foodborne pathogens develop and diffusion, such as their food vehicles and how the contamination can occur in the food supply chain. The positive results of this e-book suggest to collect additional and new data for the future on this topic “Foodborne pathogens: hygiene and safety”
Table of Contents
Editorial: Foodborne pathogens: hygiene and safety
Maria Schirone, Pierina Visciano, Rosanna Tofalo and Giovanna Suzzi
A Highlight for Non-Escherichia coli and Non-Salmonella sp. Enterobacteriaceae in Dairy Foods Contamination
Angelo M. B. Amorin and Janaína dos Santos Nascimento
Antibacterial Action of Jineol Isolated from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans against Selected Foodborne Pathogens
Vivek K. Bajpai, Shruti Shukla, Woon K. Paek, Jeongheui Lim, Pradeep Kumar and Minkyun Na
Turn Up the Heat – Food and Clinical Escherichia coli Isolates Feature Two Transferrable Loci of Heat Resistance
Erik J. Boll, Roger Marti, Henrik Hasman, Søren Overballe-Petersen, Marc Stegger, Kim Ng, Susanne Knøchel, Karen A. Krogfelt, Joerg Hummerjohann and Carsten Struve
Colonisation of Meat by Escherichia coli O157:H7: Investigation Bacterial Tropism with Respect to the Different Types of Skeletal Muscles, Subtypes of Myofribes, and Postmortem Time
Caroline Chagnot, Annie Venien, Sandra Renier, Nelly Caccia, Régine Talon, Thierry Astruc and Mickaël Desvaux
Comparative Genomic Characterization of the Highly Persistent and Potentially Virulent Cronobacter sakazakii ST83, CC65 Strain H322 and Other ST83 Strains
Hannah R. Chase, Gopal R. Gopinath, Athmanya K. Eshwar, Andrea Stoller, Claudia Fricker-Feer, Jayanthi Gangiredla, Isha R. Patel, Hediye N. Cinar, HyeJin Jeong, ChaeYoon Lee, Flavia Negrete, Samantha Finkelstein, Roger Stephan, Ben D. Tall and Angelika Lehner
Listeria monocytogenes 10403S Arginine Repressor ArgR Finely Tunes Arginine Metabolism Regulation under Acidic Conditions
Changyong Cheng, Zhimei Dong, Xiao Han, Jing Sun, Hang Wang, Li Jiang, Yongchun Yang, Tiantian Ma, Zhongwei Chen, Jing Yu, Weihuan Fang and Houhui Song
Detection and Characterization of Salmonella Serotypes in the Production Chain of Two Pig Farms in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina
Rocío Colello, María J. Ruiz, Valeria M. Padín, Ariel D. Rogé, Gerardo Leotta, Nora Lía Padola and Analía I. Etcheverría
Characterization of Four Novel Bacteriophages Isolated from British Columbia for Control of Non-typhoidal Salmonella in Vitro and on Sprouting Alfalfa Seeds
Karen Fong, Brett LaBossiere, Andrea I. M. Switt, Pascal Delaquis, Lawrence Goodridge, Roger C. Levesque, Michelle D. Danyluk and Siyun Wang
Optimization of E. coli Inactivation by Benzalkonium Chloride Reveals the Importance of Quantifying the Inoculum Effect on Chemical Disinfection
Míriam R. García and Marta L. Cabo
Combination of Microfluidic Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification with Gold Nanoparticles for Rapid Detection of Salmonella spp. in Food Samples
Alejandro Garrido-Maestu, Sarah Azinheiro, Joana Carvalho, Sara Abalde-Cela, Enrique Carbó-Argibay, Lorena Diéguez, Marek Piotrowski, Yury V. Kolen’ko and Marta Prado
Novel Biocontrol Methods for Listeria monocytogenes Biofilms in Food Production Facilities
Jessica A. Gray, P. Scott Chandry, Mandeep Kaur, Chawalit Kocharunchitt, John P. Bowman and Edward M. Fox
An assessment of Different Genomic Approaches for Inferring Phylogeny of Listeria monocytogenes
Clémentine Henri, Pimlapas Leekitcharoenphon, Heather A. Carleton, Nicolas Radomski, Rolf S. Kaas, Jean-François Mariet, Arnaud Felten, Frank M. Aarestrup, Peter Gerner Smidt, Sophie Roussel, Laurent Guillier, Michel-Yves Mistou and René S. Hendriksen
Risk of Transimission of Antimicrobial Resistant Escherichia coli from Commercial Broiler and Free-Range Retail Chicken in India
Arif Hussain, Sabiha Shaik, Amit Ranjan, Nishant Nandanwar, Sumeet K. Tiwari, Mohammad Majid, Ramani Baddam, Insaf A. Qureshi, Torsten Semmler, Lothar H. Wieler, Mohammad A. Islam, Dipshikha Chakravortty and Niyaz Ahmed
Helicobacter pullorum: An Emerging Zoonotic Pathogen
Sundus Javed, Farzana Gul, Kashaf Javed and Habib Bokhari
Combinational Inhibitory Action of Hedychium spicatum L. Essential Oil and γ-Radiation on Growth Rate and Mycotoxins Content of Fusarium graminearum in Maize: Response Surface Methodology
Naveen K. Kalagatur, Jalarama R. Kamasani, Chandranayaka Siddaiah, Vijai K. Gupta, Kadirvelu Krishna and Venkataramana Mudili
Modeling the Combined Effect of Pressure and Mild-Heat on the Inactivation Kinetics of Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua and Staphylococcus aureus in Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon)
Barjinder P. Kaur and P. Srinivasa Rao
Production of Lipopeptide Biosurfactant by a Marine Nesterenkonia sp. and Its Application in Food Industry
George S. Kiran, Sethu Priyadharsini, Arya Sajayan, Gopal B. Priyadharsini, Navya Poulose and Joseph Selvin
Gene Expression Response of Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis Phage Type 8 to Subinhibitory Concentrations of the Plant-Derived Compounds Trans-Cinnamaldehyde and Eugenol
Anup Kollanoor Johny, Jonathan G. Frye, Annie Donoghue, Dan J. Donoghue, Steffen Porwollik, Michael McClelland and Kumar Venkitanarayanan
Comparison of the Microbiological Quality and Safety between Conventional and Organic Vegetables Sold in Malaysia
Chee-Hao Kuan, Yaya Rukayadi, Siti H. Ahmad, Che W. J. Wan Mohamed Radzi, Tze-Young Thung, Jayasekara M. K. J. K. Premarathne, Wei-San Chang, Yuet-Ying Loo, Chia-Wanq Tan, Othman B. Ramzi, Siti N. Mohd Fadzil, Chee-Sian Kuan, Siok-Koon Yeo, Mitsuaki Nishibuchi and Son Radu
Caco-2 Invasion by Cronobacter sakazakii and Salmonella enterica Exposed to Drying and Heat Treatments in Dried State in Milk Powder
Emilie Lang, Stéphane Guyot, Pablo Alvarez-Martin, Jean-Marie Perrier-Cornet and Patrick Gervais
Increased Adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes Strains to Abiotic Surfaces under Cold Stress
Bo-Hyung Lee, Michel Hébraud and Thierry Bernardi
Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance of Non-typhoidal Salmonella Isolated from Raw Chicken Carcasses of Commercial Broilers and Spent Hens in Tai’an, China
Song Li, Yufa Zhou and Zengmin Miao
Genetic Diversity, Antimicrobial Susceptibility, and Biofilm Formation of Cronobacter spp. Recovered from Spices and Cereals
Yuanhong Li, Huan Yu, Hua Jiang, Yang Jiao, Yaodong Zhang and Jihong Shao
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Aspects on Campylobacter jejuni Biofilms
Roberta T. Melo, Eliane P. Mendonça, Guilherme P. Monteiro, Mariana C. Siqueira, Clara B. Pereira, Phelipe A. B. M. Peres, Heriberto Fernandez and Daise A. Rossi
Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Protium serratum and Investigation of their Potential Impacts on Food Safety and Control
Yugal K. Mohanta, Sujogya K. Panda, Akshaya K. Bastia and Tapan K. Mohanta
Food Grade Pimenta Leaf Essential Oil Reduces the Attachment of Salmonella enterica Heidelberg (2011 Ground Turkey Outbreak Isolate) on to Turkey Skin
Divek V. T. Nair and Anup Kollanoor Johny
Characterizing the Antimicrobial Function of a Dairy-Originated Probiotic, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, Against Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Heidelberg in Turkey Poults
Divek V. T. Nair and Anup Kollanoor Johny
Effect of Various Inoculum Levels of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Heidelberg (2011 Ground Turkey Outbreak Isolate) on Cecal Colonization, Dissemination to Internal Organs, and Deposition in Skeletal Muscles of Commercial Turkeys after Experimental Oral Challenge
Divek V. T. Nair, Jijo Vazhakkattu Thomas, Sally Noll, Robert Porter Jr. and Anup Kollanoor Johny
DNA-Sequence Based Typing of the Cronobacter Genus Using MLST, CRISPR-cas Array and Capsular Profiling
Pauline Ogrodzki and Stephen J. Forsythe
Enhanced Biofilm Formation by Ferrous and Ferric Iron Through Oxidative Stress in Campylobacter jejuni
Euna Oh, Katelyn J. Andrews and Byeonghwa Jeon
Cronobacter sakazakii and Microbiological Parameters in Dairy Formulas Associated with a Food Alert in Chile
Julio Parra-Flores, Fabiola Cerda-Leal, Alejandra Contreras, Nicole Valenzuela-Riffo, Alejandra Rodríguez and Juan Aguirre
Listeria monocytogenes Sequence Types 121 and 14 Repeatedly Isolated Within One Year of Sampling in a Rabbit Meat Processing Plant: Persistence and Ecophysiology
Frédérique Pasquali, Federica Palma, Laurent Guillier, Alex Lucchi, Alessandra De Cesare and Gerardo Manfreda
Virulence Gene Sequencing Highlights Similarities and Differences in Sequences in Listeria monocytogenes Serotype 1/2a and 4b Strains of Clinical and Food Origin From 3 Different Geographic Locations
Sofia V. Poimenidou, Marion Dalmasso, Konstantinos Papadimitriou, Edward M. Fox, Panagiotis N. Skandamis and Kieran Jordan
Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance against Tetracycline in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in Cattle and Beef Meat from Selangor, Malaysia
Jayasekara M. K. J. K. Premarathne, Aimi S. Anuar, Tze Young Thung, Dilan A. Satharasinghe, Nuzul Noorahya Jambari, Noor-Azira Abdul-Mutalib, John Tang Yew Huat, Dayang F. Basri, Yaya Rukayadi, Yoshitsugu Nakaguchi, Mitsuaki Nishibuchi and Son Radu
Determination of Lipophilic Marine Biotoxins in Mussels Harvested from the Adriatic Sea by LC-MS/MS
Maria Schirone, Miriam Berti, Pierina Visciano, Francesco Chiumiento, Giacomo Migliorati, Rosanna Tofalo, Giovanna Suzzi, Federica Di Giacinto and Nicola Ferri
Detection of Mycobacteria by Culture and DNA-Based Methods in Animal-Derived Food Products Purchased at Spanish Supermarkets
Iker A. Sevilla, Elena Molina, Maitane Tello, Natalia Elguezabal, Ramón A. Juste and Joseba M. Garrido
Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolated from Short Mackerels (Rastrelliger brachysoma) in Malaysia
Chia W. Tan, Tan T. H. Malcolm, Chee H. Kuan, Tze Y. Thung, Wei S. Chang, Yuet Y. Loo, Jayasekara M. K. J. K. Premarathne, Othman B. Ramzi, Mohd F. S. Norshafawatie, Nordin Yusralimuna, Yaya Rukayadi, Yoshitsugu Nakaguchi, Mitsuaki Nishibuchi and Son Radu
Prevalence, Virulence Genes and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Salmonella Serovars from Retail Beef in Selangor, Malaysia
Tze Y. Thung, Son Radu, Nor A. Mahyudin, Yaya Rukayadi, Zunita Zakaria, Nurzafirah Mazlan,
Boon H. Tan, Epeng Lee, Soo L. Yeoh, Yih Z. Chin, Chia W. Tan, Chee H. Kuan, Dayang F. Basri and Che W. J. Wan Mohamed Radzi
MLVA for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Dublin: Development of a Method Suitable for Inter-Laboratory Surveillance and Application in the Context of a Raw Milk Cheese Outbreak in France in 2012
Marie-Léone Vignaud, Emeline Cherchame, Muriel Marault, Emilie Chaing, Simon Le Hello, Valerie Michel, Nathalie Jourdan-Da Silva, Renaud Lailler, Anne Brisabois and Sabrina Cadel-Six
A Novel Approach to Predict the Growth of Staphylococcus aureus on Rice Cake
Jun Wang, Shige Koseki, Mi-Ja Chung and Deog-Hwan Oh
Complete Genomic Analysis of a Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Isolate Cultured From Ready-to-Eat Pork in China Carrying One Large Plasmid Containing mcr-1
Wei Wang, Zulqarnain Baloch, Mingyuan Zou, Yinping Dong, Zixin Peng, Yujie Hu, Jin Xu, Nafeesa Yasmeen, Fengqin Li and Séamus Fanning
Prevalence and Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Cultured From Raw Milk Taken From Dairy Cows With Mastitis in Beijing, China
Wei Wang, Xiaohui Lin, Tao Jiang, Zixin Peng, Jin Xu, Lingxian Yi, Fengqin Li, Séamus Fanning and Zulqarnain Baloch
Rapid Flow Cytometry Detection of a Single Viable Escherichia coli O157:H7 Cell in Raw Spinach Using a Simplified Sample Preparation Technique
Anna J. Williams, Willie M. Cooper, Shawn Ramsaroop, Pierre Alusta, Dan A. Buzatu and Jon G. Wilkes
Comprehensive Proteomic Analysis of Lysine Acetylation in the Foodborne Pathogen Trichinella spiralis
Yong Yang, Mingwei Tong, Xue Bai, Xiaolei Liu, Xuepeng Cai, Xuenong Luo, Peihao Zhang, Wei Cai, Isabelle Vallée, Yonghua Zhou and Mingyuan Liu
Exploration of the Regulatory Mechanism of a Secondary Metabolism by Comparative Transcriptomics in Aspergillus flavus
Guangshan Yao, Yuewei Yue, Yishi Fu, Zhou Fang, Zhangling Xu, Genli Ma and Shihua Wang
Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolated from Retail Foods in China
Shuhong Zhang, Guangzhu Yang, Qinghua Ye, Qingping Wu, Jumei Zhang and Yuanbin Huang
The Fimbrial Gene z2376 in Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 Contributes to Bacterial Pathogenicity
Bicheng Zhang, Xiaohan Sun, Hongjie Fan, Kongwang He and Xuehan Zhang
Detection of Foodborne Pathogens by Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy
Xihong Zhao, Mei Li and Zhenbo Xu
Keywords: Food, microorganisms, Virulence, illness, preservatives
Received: 29 Jun 2019;
Accepted: 12 Aug 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Schirone, Visciano, Tofalo and Suzzi. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Dr. Maria Schirone, Faculty of Bioscience and Technology for Food Agriculture and Environment, University of Teramo, Teramo, Abruzzo, Italy, email@example.com