Original Research ARTICLE
Functional genomic analyses of exopolysaccharide-producing Streptococcus thermophilus ASCC 1275 in response to milk fermentation conditions
- 1The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced from dairy bacteria improves texture and functionalities of fermented dairy foods. Our previous study showed improved EPS production from Streptococcus thermophilus ASCC1275 (ST1275) by simple alteration of fermentation conditions such as pH decrease (pH 6.5 pH 5.5), temperature increase (37°C 40°C) and/or whey protein isolate (WPI) supplementation. The iTRAQ-based proteomics in combination with transcriptomics were applied to understand cellular protein expression in ST1275 in response to above shifts during milk fermentation. The pH decrease induced the most differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) that are involved in cellular metabolic responses including glutamate catabolism, arginine biosynthesis, cysteine catabolism, purine metabolism, lactose uptake and fatty acid biosynthesis. Temperature increase and WPI supplementation did not induce much changes in global protein express profiles of ST1275 between comparisons of pH 5.5 conditions. Comparative proteomic analyses from pairwise comparisons demonstrated enhanced glutamate catabolism and purine metabolism under pH 5.5 conditions (Cd2, Cd3 and Cd4) compared to that of pH 6.5 condition (Cd1). Concordance analysis for differential expressed genes (DEGs) and DEPs highlighted down-regulated glutamate catabolism and up-regulated arginine biosynthesis in pH 5.5 conditions. Down regulation of glutamate catabolism was also confirmed by pathway enrichment analysis. Down-regulation of EpsB involved in EPS assembly was observed at both mRNA and protein level in pH 5.5 conditions compared to that in pH 6.5 condition. Medium pH decreased to mild acidic level induced cellular changes associated with glutamate catabolism, arginine biosynthesis and regulation of EPS assembly in ST1275.
Keywords: Exopolysaccharide, Streptococcus thermophilus, pH, Proteome, Transcriptome
Received: 27 Jun 2019;
Accepted: 12 Aug 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Wu, Padmanabhan, Padmanabhan and Shah. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Prof. Nagendra P. Shah, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, email@example.com